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Climate . Chapter 14.1. What is climate?. Climatology = the study of Earth’s climate and the factors that affect past, present, and future climatic changes. Climate: more than just average weather. Climate. The long term weather patterns of an area

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Chapter 14.1

what is climate
What is climate?
  • Climatology = the study of Earth’s climate and the factors that affect past, present, and future climatic changes.

The long term weather patterns of an area

It describes the annual variations of temperature, precipitation, wind, and other weather variables.

  • The data that is gathered by meteorologists is averaged on a monthly or annual basis for a period of at least 30 years to determine the “NORMALS” or standard values for a location.
turn your book to pg 360
Turn your book to pg. 360
  • Look at the Problem-Solving Lab
  • Look at the “Analysis” section and answer the questions to numbers 1 & 2.
what causes climates
What causes Climates?
  • 3 things:
  • Latitude
  • Topographic Effects
  • Air Masses
  • Remember: Different parts of Earth receive different amounts of solar radiation.
  • The amount of solar radiation received by any one place varies because Earth is tilted on its axis, and this affects how the Sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface.
  • Look at pg. 362 Figure 14-2
  • Notice the tropics, temperate zones, and polar zones!
topographic effects
Topographic Effects
  • Water heats up and cools down more slowly than land.
  • Thus.. Large bodies of water affect the climates of coastal areas.
  • Many coastal areas are warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer than inland areas of similar latitude.
topographic effects continued
Topographic Effects Continued…
  • Also temperatures in the lower atmosphere generally decrease with altitude.
  • Thus, mountain climates are usually cooler than those at sea level.
topographic effect continued
Topographic Effect Continued….
  • Climates also differ on either side of a mountain.
  • Air rises up on one side of a mountain (windward side) as a result of orographic lifting causing precipitation.
  • The climate on the other side of the mountain (the leeward side) is dry and warm.
air masses
Air Masses
  • Two of the main causes of weather are the movement and interaction of air masses.
koeppen classification system
Koeppen Classification System
  • Classification system used for climates.
  • Uses temperature, precipitation, and vegetation criteria to determine types of climates.
  • The system is based on the average monthly values of these 3 things.
koeppen found 6 main divisions of climates
Koeppen found 6 main divisions of climates
  • Tropical
  • Dry
  • Mild
  • Continental
  • Polar
  • High Elevation
tropical climates
Tropical Climates
  • Constant high temperatures
  • Lots of rain
  • Tropical rain forests due to heat and rain
dry climates
Dry Climates
  • Cover 30% of Earth’s land area
  • Makes up the largest climactic zone
  • Precipitation is low
  • Vegetation is scarce
  • High rates of evaporation
  • Few clouds
  • 2 types:
  • Arid
  • Semi-arid or steppe. Steppes are more humid than deserts. They usually separate areas of arid regions and wet climates.
mild climates
Mild Climates
  • Classified into 3 types:
  • Humid subtropical- warm, muggy weather in summer and cool, dry in winter
  • Marine west coast- mild winters and cool summers with lots of precipitation throughout the year.
  • Mediterranean- Summers are warm
continental climate
Continental Climate
  • 3 subtypes:
  • Warm summer
  • Cool summer
  • Subarctic

*** Continental Climates are battlegrounds for clashing tropical and polar air masses.

polar climates
Polar Climates
  • Coldest regions on Earth
  • Precipitation is low
  • Sometimes, the climate of a small area can be much different from that of the larger area surround it.
  • A localized climate that differs from the main regional climate is called a MICROCLIMATE.
heat islands
Heat Islands
  • The presence of many concrete buildings and large expanses of asphalt can create “heat islands” wherein the climate is warmer than in surrounding rural areas.