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Cotton Quality and Cotton Testing - Actual Developments in Cotton Quality Evaluation - Axel Drieling Faserinstitut Bremen e.V. (Bremen Fibre Institute), Germany - Laboratory of the Bremen Cotton Exchange - Africa – EU Cotton Partnership Seminar on Cotton in Africa:

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Cotton quality and cotton testing actual developments in cotton quality evaluation

Cotton Quality and Cotton Testing

- Actual Developments in Cotton Quality Evaluation -

Axel Drieling

Faserinstitut Bremen e.V. (Bremen Fibre Institute), Germany

- Laboratory of the Bremen Cotton Exchange -

Africa – EU Cotton Partnership

Seminar on Cotton in Africa:

Trends, Incentives and Institutions

Arusha, Tanzania, September 6 to 8


The quality of cotton
The Quality of Cotton

It is important to obtain reliable information about the actual quality of cotton

  • Cotton growers need the information

    • to obtain an equitable price for the cotton

    • to enhance cotton quality (breeding/research)

  • Ginning needs the information

    • To optimise the ginning process

  • The trade needs the information

    • to fix the price of cotton

    • to satisfy the customers

  • Cotton spinners need the information

    • to assure a properly running process

    • to achieve the required quality of yarn

    • to minimize the raw material costs


Manual visual classing
Manual/Visual Classing

  • Manual Classing is a common method for estimating the quality of cotton

  • Manual Classing is the actual basis for trading cotton

  • But Manual Classing is commonly rated

    • not to be sufficiently objective

    • not to be sufficiently reliable / precise

  • Global cotton trading is more and more accepting and demanding instrument test results

  • Cotton spinning requires instrument test results, notManual Classing results


Instrument testing
Instrument Testing

  • High Volume Testing

    • Limited number of parameters

    • High speed testing, capable for testing every single bale

    • High Volume Instruments (HVI) from various manufacturers

  • Low Volume Testing / Detailed Testing

    • Many different instruments and parameters for all kinds of properties

    • Detailed information for e.g. spinning purposes

    • High time effort and costs, not capable for testing every single bale


Perspective

The worldwide accepted and demanded way for the evaluation of cotton quality is inevitably moving towards High Volume Instrument testing

Classing of the cotton production is shifting from manual classing to instrument testing (globally 30% of all produced bales, increasing to more than 60% in the next 5 years [ICAC])

Spinning mills are using HVI results regularly

Research is using HVI results regularly

Trade is moving towards HVI results to fulfil customers demands

Perspective


Icac csitc task force
ICAC CSITC Task Force of cotton quality is inevitably moving towards

Under the auspices of ICAC, the Task Force for

Commercial Standardization of Instrument Testing of Cotton – CSITC

was formed to solve existing problems for the global commercial use of instrument cotton testing

  • Formed in December 2003

  • 15 international members:

    • Cotton exporters

    • Importers

    • Testing

    • All segments of the world cotton industry

    • Research


Icac csitc task force objectives
ICAC CSITC Task Force: Objectives of cotton quality is inevitably moving towards

  • To establish a worldwide acceptable, adoptable and reliable instrument based cotton quality assessment for commercial purposes

  • To ensure and improve the reliability of High Volume Testing for commercial purposes

     Standardization

     Harmonisation

  • To assist developing countries to meet the requirements of standardized and harmonized instrument testing, so that they are not at a disadvantage

  • To encourage the trading of cotton based on instrument data


Cfc eu icac project
CFC/EU – ICAC Project of cotton quality is inevitably moving towards

Based on the recommendations of the CSITC Task Force, and to facilitate the work that is necessary to fulfil the CSITC objectives, a project was created:

Commercial Standardization of Instrument Testing of Cotton for the Cotton Producing Developing Countries in Africa

  • Project Executing Agency: Faserinstitut Bremen (Bremen Fibre Institute)

  • Project Partners:

    • CIRAD (France)

    • East Africa: TBS (Tanzania) and TCB (Tanzania)

    • West Africa: Cerfitex (Mali) and Sofitex (Burkina Faso)

  • Supervisory Body: International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC)

  • Financing: Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) – 2.03 Mio USD

  • Co-Financing: European Commission (as part of its EC –ACP Agricultural Commodities Programme) – 3 Mio USD (2.4 Mio EUR)

  • External Contribution: e.g. USDA, Bremen Cotton Exchange, Uster, Premier

  • Project Duration: 4 years; start expected for October 2007


Cfc eu icac project1

This project will provide the financial basis for the topics and activities that I will explain in this presentation

Global objectives and activities for the commercial standardization of Instrument Testing (Standardization, Harmonization)

Core of the project: Specific objectives and activities for Instrument Testing in Africa, for the benefit of the African cotton production

CFC/EU ICAC Project


A standardization of high volume testing

Standardization is necessary to have and activities that I will explain in this presentationone common language that is understood by all

CSITC Task Force agreed on the Standard Test Method and the Calibration Material

Within the project, guidelines for HVI testing from different sides will be combined

But there is no restriction to a single instrument manufacturer

CSITC Task Force agreed to choose 6 parameters which are sufficiently reliable, and fixed the valid definition and calibration

Micronaire (including fineness and maturity)

Strength

Length, Length Uniformity

Colour: Reflectance Rd, Yellowness +b

Other important properties/parameters which are less reliable at this stage, are not included, but improvements are requested

CSITC Task Force developed recommendations for sampling

a) Standardization of High Volume Testing


Standardization of high volume testing colour
Standardization of High Volume Testing: Colour and activities that I will explain in this presentation

  • Colour results

    • Reflectance – quantitative number, measured in Rd

    • Yellowness – quantitative number, measured in +b

       For all cottons, the same colour is measured with the same results

  • Country/region specific Colour Grades, which respect origin specific information, can easily be calculated based on the standardized instrument results (Rd and +b)

  • Every country/region can use its own colour grade – if necessary


B harmonization of high volume testing
b) Harmonization and activities that I will explain in this presentation of High Volume Testing

Harmonization means to care for the same results in different laboratories on the same samples

  • For every laboratory it is important to check regularly, if there is a difference between its results and the results of other laboratories

     This can be done with Round Trials (like Bremen or USDA)

  • For laboratories it is additionally useful to get more detailed information about possible reasons for any deviations

     It is possible to check this in a specifically adapted Round Trial

  • For all users of instrument test results, it is essential to know about the accuracy and precision of the utilized instruments and methods

     This can be achieved with Round Trials (partially with Bremen or USDA RTs)

  • For all users of instrument test results, it is helpful to know about the reliability of cotton testing laboratories and their test results

     It is possible to check this in a specifically adapted Round Trial


Harmonization csitc round trial

Other round trials like the Bremen Cotton Round Trial or the USDA HVI Checktest are useful, but do not fulfil all requirements of CSITC

A specific CSITC Round Trial was established to fulfil all necessities of harmonization for High Volume Testing

Aims:

Evaluation of the test method / test result variability

Comparison of the results between laboratories

New: Evaluation/rating of the participating laboratories

New: Detailed analysis of laboratories to achieve more accurate results

Harmonization: CSITC Round Trial


Csitc round trial configuration
CSITC Round Trial – Configuration USDA HVI Checktest are useful, but do not fulfil all requirements of CSITC

  • For the purposes of CSITC Round Trial, very intense testing is necessary:

  • 4 Round Trials per year with each 5 different cotton samples,

  • 150 tests for each laboratory / 30 tests for each cotton

  • all single data is evaluated (900 results for each laboratory)

Cotton 1 to cotton 4 are used to evaluate laboratories reliably

Cotton 5 offers the chance to include cottons with different behaviour / from different origins


Csitc round trial variability information
CSITC Round Trial – Variability Information USDA HVI Checktest are useful, but do not fulfil all requirements of CSITC

  • "For all users of instrument test results, it is essential to know about the accuracy and precision of the utilized instruments and methods"

    • Detailed information about inter-laboratory variation

    • Detailed information about in-laboratory variation (new)


Csitc round trial comparison of results
CSITC Round Trial – Comparison of Results USDA HVI Checktest are useful, but do not fulfil all requirements of CSITC

"For every laboratory it is important to check regularly, if there is a difference between its results and the results of other laboratories"


Csitc round trial evaluation rating of labs
CSITC Round Trial – Evaluation/Rating of Labs USDA HVI Checktest are useful, but do not fulfil all requirements of CSITC

"For all users of instrument test results, it is helpful to know about

the reliability of cotton testing laboratories and their test results"

Information for customers.

This can e.g. be used

for lab sales promotion.


Csitc round trial detailed analysis
CSITC Round Trial – Detailed Analysis USDA HVI Checktest are useful, but do not fulfil all requirements of CSITC

  • "For laboratories it is additionally useful to get more detailed information about possible reasons for any deviations"

    • Detailed analysis ofaccuracy problems

    • Analysis of precision/variability problems


Csitc round trial conclusion

The CSITC Round Trial is based on the recommendations and aim of the CSITC Task Force

The Round Trial is the most important and powerful step towards harmonized and reliable test results

It was developed in co-operation between the Bremen Fibre Institute and USDA-AMS, and is regularly conducted by these partners

It is headed by the ICAC as an independent organization

The regular Round Trial started in January 2007

Every laboratory is invited to participate to a subsidized fee of 75 USD per Round Trial / 300 USD per year

For registration, please contact the ICAC or give me a notice

www.icac.org

csitcsecretariat@icac.org

CSITC Round Trial – Conclusion


C africa specific objective and project activities

The aim is to assist developing countries to meet the requirements of standardized and harmonized instrument testing, so that they are not at a disadvantage

This is the core of the project funded by the Common Fund for Commodities and the European Commission

 It is not sufficient to check cotton testing laboratories in Africa, but to support them to be able to produce reliable test results.

 Support will be given within the regions.

The support will be done mainly by the establishment of Regional Technical Centres (RTCs) in the most important cotton producing regions.

c) Africa-Specific Objective and Project Activities


Benefits for cotton producing developing countries

High Volume Testing will enable cotton producing developing countries to sell their cotton based on reliable and comparable test results

Avoid price discounts due to unknown properties

Avoid claims

Secure/improve their market share

Use of the test results in the whole textile value added chain

Monetary benefit regarding higher achievable prices:approx. 3 US-ct/kg

Benefits for Cotton Producing Developing Countries


Africa specific activities

Regional Technical Centres will mainly cover the following activities:

Reference activities

Re-tests

Regional round trials

Provision of information

Training

Experience and expertise

Technical information

Regional cooperation

Routine testing of the regional cotton production where it is demanded

Additionally there will be direct monetary support to existing laboratories to enhance their testing environment

Africa-Specific Activities


Africa specific activities support structure
Africa-Specific Activities: Support Structure activities:

ICAC

CSITC Task Force recommendations

International project partners

CFC international project partners

Faserinstitut Bremen; CIRAD

Africa

West Africa East Africa

(Other regions)

Cerfitex

with Sofitex

TBS

with TCB

Regional centres

Individual Laboratories


Africa specific activities support structure1
Africa-Specific Activities: Support Structure activities:

a) Training, Support, Expertise for RTCs

CSITC recommendations / knowledges / skills

International project partners

FIBRE, CIRAD, USDA, BBB

Africa

RTC-West RTC-East

Cerfitex

with Sofitex

TBS

with TCB

Regional Technical

Centres (RTC)

Other areas in the World


Africa specific activities support structure2
Africa-Specific Activities: Support Structure activities:

b) Regional Training and Regional Round Trials

CSITC recommendations / knowledges / skills

International project partners

FIBRE, CIRAD, USDA, BBB

Africa

RTC-West RTC-East

Cerfitex

with Sofitex

TBS

with TCB

Regional Technical

Centres (RTC)

Individual Laboratories


Africa specific activities support structure3
Africa-Specific Activities: Support Structure activities:

c) International CSITC Round Trials

CSITC round test samples and results

International project partners

FIBRE, CIRAD, USDA, BBB

Africa

RTC-West RTC-East

Cerfitex

with Sofitex

TBS

with TCB

Regional Technical

Centres (RTC)

Individual Laboratories


Africa specific activities support structure4
Africa-Specific Activities: Support Structure activities:

d) Re-Tests on tested samples

CSITC recommendations

International project partners

FIBRE, CIRAD, USDA, BBB

Africa

RTC-West RTC-East

Cerfitex

with Sofitex

TBS

with TCB

Regional Technical

Centres (RTC)

Individual Laboratories


Africa specific activities support structure5
Africa-Specific Activities: Support Structure activities:

e) Audits and Expertise

CSITC recommendations

International project partners

FIBRE, CIRAD, USDA, BBB

Africa

RTC-West RTC-East

Cerfitex

with Sofitex

TBS

with TCB

Regional Technical

Centres (RTC)

Individual Laboratories


Africa specific activities support structure6
Africa-Specific Activities: Support Structure activities:

f) Compatibility with ISO Accreditation

National ISO Certification / Accreditation Bodies

International project partners

FIBRE, CIRAD, USDA, BBB

Africa

RTC-West RTC-East

Cerfitex

with Sofitex

TBS

with TCB

Regional Technical

Centres (RTC)

Individual Laboratories


Africa specific activities choice of regions
Africa-Specific Activities: Choice of Regions activities:

Cotton fibre production in tons in 2004-2005 (ICAC, September 2005),

only countries with more than 10,000 tons of cotton production in season 2004/2005 are mentioned in this table


Africa specific activities choice of regions and partners

RTC West: activities:

West and Central Africa:

CERFITEX with SOFITEX

RTC East:

East and Southern Africa:

TBS with TCB

Africa-Specific Activities: Choice of Regions and Partners

Location of RTC

Full support from RTC

Other type of support from RTC

The Regional Technical Centres are planned to be financial sustainable at the end of the project, so that their support to the laboratories will continue.


D encourage trading of cotton based on instrument data

Up to now trading rules and contracts do mainly contain: activities:

Manual classing results

Micronaire results

Partially strength results: Pressley or HVI

Customers are demanding instrument test results

CSITC Task Force is encouraging trading of cotton based on instrument data by e.g. showing the reliability of the results

CSITC Task Force is supporting the introduction of instrument test results in trading rules / arbitration rules

d) Encourage Trading of Cotton Based on Instrument Data


Summary

In this presentation I tried to explain activities:

Manual classing in comparison to High Volume Instrument Testing, the advantages, and the perspective towards Instrument Testing

The ICAC CSITC Task Force on Commercial Standardization of Instrument Testing of Cotton (CSITC) and its objectives

The related project funded by the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) and the European Commission

The necessity and steps of testing standardization

The necessity and steps of testing harmonization

The CSITC Round Trial as the major step for harmonization

The Africa specific project activities including the Regional Technical Centres that will be established

Trading based on instrument test results

Summary

Thank you

very much

for your

attention!