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Mythology. Greek gods and goddesses. DAY 1. How Myths Have Influenced Our Language: HW Review. ATLAS. HERCULES. MYTH : Son of Zeus; famous for strength and adventures/ “Twelve Labours ” CULTURE : “Herculean task”—a task requiring great effort/strength

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Greek gods and goddesses

how myths have influenced our language hw review
How Myths Have Influenced Our Language: HW Review



MYTH: Son of Zeus; famous for strength and adventures/ “Twelve Labours”

CULTURE: “Herculean task”—a task requiring great effort/strength


  • MYTH: Titan who held up the celestial sphere
  • CULTURE: Cartography (the study of maps)
labyrinth midas
  • MYTH: Elaborate structure to hold Minotaur (half man/half bull)
  • CULTURE: Maze/ difficult to navigate course
  • MYTH: King with ability to touch items to turn to gold
  • CULTURE: “The Midas touch” if you can make $ quickly/easily
pan sisyphus
  • MYTH: God of the wild (shepherd god); hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat; fertility; Spring; music
  • CULTURE: Pan pipes; panic (sudden fright)
  • MYTH: King punished by having to continuously push boulder up hill
  • CULTURE: Sisyphean= endless task/labor
tantalus titans
  • MYTH: Punished—had to stand in pool of water with fruit eternally eluding his reach and water always too far to drink
  • CULTURE: “Tantalize”= experience of something always being out of reach
  • MYTH: Race of powerful gods/ immortal giants of extreme strength & endurance
  • CULTURE: Large objects have been said to be “titanic” in size (i.e. the Titanic); Tennessee Titans (football)
what is a myth directly from p 1013
What is a Myth? (directly from p 1013)
  • MYTHS are stories that are nearly always religious. Most cultures have myths that explain natural phenomena such as seasonal changes, fire, lightning, drought, floods, and death. Myths also teach moral lessons, explain history, and express, as dreams do, the deepest fears and hopes of the human race.
  • MYTHIC CHARACTERS have notable characteristics. Several myths also feature horrible animals and monsters with terrifying strength, which are difficult to escape from or subdue. Characters in myths are often gods or goddesses, which frequently interact with humans (many times as if in a game).
example myth persephone and the seasons
Example Myth: Persephone and the Seasons
  • Demeter (goddess of crops)+ Zeus (king of the gods)= child named Persephone
  • Hades (god of underworld) kidnapped Persephone
  • Demeter tries to find her—eventually, finds out that Hades took her and complains to Zeus (Hades’ brother) to make him give her back
  • Zeus refuses, so Demeter decides not to do her job w/crops, so nothing growsFAMINE
  • Zeus eventually makes Hades let Persephone go
  • While she was in the underworld, Persephone ate a pomegranate seed…because of her action, she has to return for 1/3 of the year to the underworld as Hades’ wife
  • Demeter mourns Persephone for 1/3 year, so crops don’t grow
greek prefixes 1 10
Greek Prefixes #1-10
  • a- [an- before a vowel] not, un-, -less;  abiotic
  • amphi- both, on both sides, around, about;  amphibrach=short on both sides; amphibious= able to live on both land and water
  • anti- instead, against, in opposition to;  antidote something given against
  • bi – two; bicycles have two wheels
  • chron- having to do with time; chronology of an author’s life
  • dyn- power, force; dynamite is an explosive
  • dys- [Greek, dus-] ill, un-, mis-, difficult, bad;  dysphoria difficult bearing
  • ec-, ex- [Greek, ek, ex] out, from, off;  exegesis act of leading out (critical explanation)
  • ecto- [Greek, ekto-] on the outside;  ectoderm outer skin
  • endo- within, inside, internal;  endoscope instrument for observing inside
odyssey webquest
Odyssey Webquest


Roman Name: Vesta

Hestia never plays a part in any Greek myth. Even though she wasn't exciting enough to make it into their stories, the Greeks honored Hestia with their dinnertime prayers, asking her to bless their food and protect their homes. City-states had a central hearth dedicated to the goddess, where the fire never went out. She was the third of the virgin goddesses. To the Romans she was the patron goddess of the Vestal Virgins, who in the Temple of Vesta kept the hearth fire of Rome forever burning. Hestia is one of three virgin goddess, along with Athena and Artemis.




Ares is the cruelest member of the Olympians, hated by all (even his mother, Hera).  This god is known for his ruthlessness when he has the upper-hand and his cowardice when the tides turn against him.  Even the Greeks disliked this terrible god.  There were no temples to Ares in ancient Greece. Aphrodite, in one of her many infidelities, started an affair with Ares, which was his motivation to fight for the Trojans in the great war.  Martial (having to do with war) and March are coined from his Latin name. His bird is the vulture, and his animal the dog.



Roman Name: Minerva

Athena is Zeus's favorite daughter and is allowed to use his weapons, including the thunderbolt. She sprang full grown in armor from his forehead, thus has no mother. She is fierce in battle but only fights justly.

Her favorite city is Athens. Her tree is the olive tree. Her animal is the owl.



Roman Name: Diana

Artemis is daughter of Zeus and Leto; her twin brother is Apollo. She is the goddess of wild things and, like Apollo, hunts with silver arrows. She is associated with the moon and the deer.

  • ROMAN NAME:  Venus
  • Goddess of Love, Desire, and Beauty
  • In addition to her natural gifts, she has a magic girdle that compels anyone she wishes to desire her. There are two accounts of her birth. One says she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. The other says that when Cronus overthrew Uranus and tossed him into the sea Aphrodite then arose from the sea foam of a giant scallop and walked to shore on Cyprus. She is the wife of Hephaestus.
cupid eros and psyche
PsycheCupid (Eros) and Psyche


  • Son of Aphrodite
  • Shoots people with darts to make them fall in love
  • Aphrodite wanted Eros to make Psyche, a beautiful princess, fall in love with a loser, but Eros accidentally shot himself, so he fell in love with Pscyhe—she eventually joins the Olympians
  • Falls in love with Eros
  • Aphrodite dislikes her (a challenge to her beauty), and makes her perform difficult tasks to be with Eros




Hermes, the most mischievous and clever of the gods, also served as a psychopomp, a guide of dead souls to the Underworld.  One of the youngest gods, Hermes showed his ability to cause both trouble and delight at an early age.  On the day of his birth, Hermes snuck out from his cradle and whisked away the cattle of his elder brother Apollo.  A witness soon reported this to Apollo, who came to Maia, Hermes's mother, demanding the return of his livestock.  Maia insisted that Hermes had been in his cradle the entire time.  Hermes was quickly found out and forced to return the cattle.  But in reparation for his actions against Apollo, the newborn god created a lyre from the shell of a turtle.  He presented the stringed instrument to his older brother.  His anger melted away, Apollo presented Hermes with a magical sleep-inducing staff called the Caduceus. 


Once Zeus realized his young son would cause nothing but trouble if his mind weren't constantly occupied, he gave him the job of Olympian Messenger.  He was given a winged cap and sandals to assist him in his duties.  Due to the nature of his job, Hermes appears most often of all the gods.


Greek Name Roman Name Divine Realm

Aphrodite Venus Love, beauty, fertility

Apollo Apollo Archery, music, prophecy, healing, light

Ares Mars War

Artemis Diana Hunting, the moon

Athena Minerva Wisdom, war

Demeter Ceres The harvest, grain, corn

Dionysus Bacchus Wine, festivity, the theater

Eros Cupid Love, sexual desire

Hades Pluto The underworld, the dead

Hephaestus Vulcan Fire, the forge, smithery

Hera Juno Marriage, queen of immortals

Hermes Mercury Messenger, commerce, science, doctors

Hestia Vesta The hearth

Pan Pan Wild beasts, the forest

Persephone Proserpine Queen of the underworld

Poseidon Neptune The sea

Zeus Jupiter Thunder, the heavens, king of immortals

prefixes 11 17
  • exo- outward, external;   exosphere= the outermost part of the atmosphere
  • inter – between; interstate= highway connecting states
  • mal – bad; malfunction= failure to function properly
  • mis–wrong; misunderstanding
  • mono- one, alone; no competition exists with monopolies
  • hypo – under, too little; hypoglycemic= low level of glucose in blood
  • hyper- [Greek, huper] above, beyond, exceedingly;  hyperbole= exaggeration
introduction to the odyssey

Introduction to the Odyssey


background to odyssey hw
Background to Odyssey HW


  • Homer credited with gathering stories about great war—Illiad and Odyssey
  • Historical struggles for control of waterway—Aegean Sea to Sea of Marmara and Black Sea—as early as 1200 B.C.
  • Illiad—10 year war fought outside of Troy (modern day western Turkey)
    • War between Troy and alliance of Greek Kings—Illiad credits war to jealousy—Helen abandoned Menelaus (husband, Greek king) and ran off with prince of Troy (Paris)
  • Odyssey tells story of attempt of Greek soldier, Odysseus, to get home after Trojan war—all Western epic poems follow basic patterns of these poems

Epics and Values

  • Epics: long narrative poems that tell of adventures of heroes who embody values of civilizations
  • Greeks taught Greek values to children through poems
  • Homer’s epics are heart of epic tradition—later epics include Aeneid, The Divine Comedy, Mahabharata and Ramayana, etc.
  • Illiad—model for epic of war
  • Odyssey—model for epic of the long journey—Homer’s most influential story because of legacy within literature
background to odyssey hw1
Background to Odyssey HW

The War-Story Background: Violence and Brutality

  • Greek kings under leadership of Agamemnon, brother of Menelaus, during Trojan War—sent a thousand ships to Troy—Greeks eventually were victorious—butchered citizens, except those they took as slaves
  • Achilles died in battle in final year of war (10 years total)
  • Agamemnon murdered by unfaithful wife when he returned home from Troy
  • Other homecoming story—Odysseus, who was smart and strong—Odyssey

Odysseus: A Hero in Trouble

  • Heroes were special class of aristocrats
  • Pain and death, but on top of the world—between ordinary people and gods
  • Odysseus is a hero in trouble—we also face world of difficult choices, unfair authority, hard work
  • Tone/Mood= melancholy, cynicism, doubt—people lack respect for the hero
  • Odysseus married to faithful Penelope, a strong woman—son was Telemachus (baby when father left for war)
  • Odysseus tried to not have to go to war by pretending to be insane—men threw baby in front of plow and he turned it aside (proving he was sane)
background to odyssey hw2
Background to Odyssey HW

The Wooden-Horse Trick

  • Odysseus was a great soldier/commander—thought up wooden-horse trick that led to downfall of Troy
  • Hid Greek soldiers in belly of wooden horse (thought to be peace offering)—hid ships—at night, the Greeks inside belly opened up gates and let in entire Greek army to begin final battle of war

The Ancient World and Ours

  • Harsh, violent world—“primitive” society—not like Athenian culture to develop several centuries later

A Search for Their Places in Life

  • Theme: central idea= people searching for right relationships with one another and people around them—want to find proper places in life
  • Story begins with Telemachus, son, at 20 years old…threatened by rude, powerful men wanting to marry his mother
  • Father is stranded on island trying to get back home—10 years since he sailed from Troy, where he had spent 10 years in battle [Book 1 begins with Odysseus on island with Calypso, where he had been for 7 years]
  • Odysseus having a “midlife crisis”—searching for inner peace and natural balance to life—we are all also searching for real identities/true selves
background to odyssey hw3
Background to Odyssey HW

Relationship with the Gods

  • Myths: traditional stories, rooted in a particular culture, that usually explain a belief, ritual, or natural phenomenon
    • Essentially religious because concerned with relationship between human beings and gods
  • Homer is religious—gods control all things—Athena, goddess of wisdom, is always with Odysseus
    • God against Odysseus is Poseidon, god of the sea—arrogance and brutishness
    • Odysseus can also be cruel/violent

Who was Homer?

  • No one knows for sure who Homer was—believed to be a blind minstrel
  • Some scholars think there must be 2 Homers; others think he’s a legend—too good to be true?
  • Model for wandering bards/minstrels later called rhapsodes
  • Rhapsodes: “Singers of tales”—historians/entertainers/mythmakers
  • No books/written history, so people sang recent events or doings of gods/goddesses
background to odyssey hw4
Background to Odyssey HW

How Were the Epics Told?

  • Originally, epics were told aloud by people who couldn’t read/write
  • Much repetition in epics because storytellers followed formulas—gave singer/audience some breathing time so singer could think of what would come next in story
  • Homeric (epic) Similes: extended comparisons
    • Compare heroic/epic events to simple, everyday events
    • Example: “She brushed it away from his skin as lightly as when a mother/Brushes a fly away from her child who is lying in sweet sleep.”
  • Wouldn’t have enough time to sing all stories, so would shorten them based on how much time was available

A Live Performance

  • Alcinous, in Book 8, particularly wonderful singer—Homer himself?
  • Anticipation surrounds rhapsodes/live performances
homer 8 th century b c 700s
Homer 8th century B.C. (700s)
  • Illiad appears to come first, followed by the Odyssey
  • Impossible to say how much of the poems are original to Homer
  • No firm evidence has been found of Homer’s existence—may not have been one real individual
  • Probably multiple versions of same stories
the adventures of odysseus
  • Epic poem= long narrative poems that tell of adventures of heroes who embody values of civilizations
  • Epithet- a descriptive term accompanying or in the place of a name
    • Example: “gray-eyed Athena”
  • Setting= Mycenaean Bronze Age (1600-1100 BC)—Bronze armor
  • 12,110 lines long—would have taken 20-25 hours to recite
  • 24 books, one for each letter of Greek alphabet—Six 4-book groups
homework for mon tues
Homework for Mon/Tues
  • Study daily edits #12-16/ prefixes #11-17/Olympian gods for quiz
  • Read “Helen on 86th Street” and complete activity
helen hw review
Helen HW Review
  • Why is Helen McGuire “perfect” for the part of Helen of Troy?
  • What part is Vita, the narrator, in the play?
  • What are the parakeets’ names?
  • Who is Vita in the horse with?
  • Where does Vita’s mom go to school?
hw review continued
HW Review continued
  • Who is Argus in the story?
  • What does the narrator do every night?
  • In what building did the Greeks make sacrifices to Athena?
  • What is Vita’s “sacrifice?”
  • Why doesn’t Helen McGuire play the role of Helen?
hw review continued1
HW Review continued
  • What do you think Vita means when she says, “‘And to say goodbye’” at the end of the play?
  • What are some of Vita’s character traits?
  • What do you think is the theme of the story?Why?
  • Find and explain one literary allusion(a reference to another known topic (work of art, piece of literature, person, place, etc.) in a work of literature) from the story?
  • Why do you think the author used the story of Helen of Troy in her story about a sixth-grade girl?
helen on eighty sixth street vocabulary
  • Polytheism- (n) the doctrine of or belief in more than one god or in many gods
  • Supplication- (n) humble prayer, entreaty, or petition.
  • Enunciate- (v) to utter or pronounce in an articulate or particular manner: He enunciates his words distinctly.
  • Incantation- (n) the chanting or uttering of words purporting to have magical power.
  • Litany- (n) a ceremonial or liturgical form of prayer.
  • Embody- (v) to give a concrete form to; express, personify, or exemplify in concrete form: to embody an idea in an allegorical painting.
  • Stifled- (v) to suppress, curb, or withhold: to stifle a yawn.
  • Ramparts- (n) a broad elevation or mound of earth raised as a fortification around a place and usually capped with a stone.
  • Odyssey- (n) a long series of wanderings or adventures, especially when filled with notable experiences, hardships, etc.
  • Commune-(n) a small group of persons living together, sharing possessions, work, income, etc., and often pursuing unconventional lifestyles.
prefixes 2 1 9
  • meta-, met- among, between, change, behind, later  metempsychosis= transmigration of the soul
  • para-, par- beside, beyond, near, incorrectly; paradox= beyond opinion
  • peri- around, about;  peripatetic= walking around
  • pre/pro- before, forward, for;  program= something written for
  • poly – many; polysyllabic= having more than three syllables
  • trans – across, beyond; transcendentalism= being beyond ordinary experience
  • un – not, unnecessary
  • semi – half, partly; semiautomatic
  • sub – under; submarine is under the water
what is a political campaign
What is a Political Campaign?
  • Definition: An effort which seeks to influence the decision making within a specific group
  • Campaign Message: The “theme” or central idea of the politician, as demonstrated through his/her campaign.
    • Examples:
      • Barack Obama, 2012: Forward
      • Mitt Romney, 2012: Believe in America
      • John McCain, 2008: Country First
what is a political campaign continued
What is a Political Campaign? Continued
  • Politicians convey their ideas about key messages before an election
  • Some key issues in presidential elections may include:
    • Economy (taxes, debt, jobs)
    • Health Care
    • Immigration
    • Education
    • Foreign Policy
    • Social Security/ Medicare
    • Gun Control
    • Environment/Global Warming
    • Terrorism
    • Role of Government
  • The issues a politician discusses are relevant to that person’s sphere of influence (i.e. a person running for sheriff will not discuss foreign policy, but will instead discuss issues of criminal justice/character)
how do politicians promote themselves
How Do Politicians “Promote” Themselves?
    • Newspapers, radio, TV
  • SOCIAL MEDIA/ INTERNET (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.)
  • WHISTLESTOP TOUR (series of brief appearances in various towns)
  • CAMPAIGN MERCHANDISE (t-shirts, buttons, bumper stickers, magnets, etc.)
example of stump speeches see website
Example of Stump Speeches (see website)

Good afternoon, ladies and gentleman. My name is John Smith, and I am running for a seat in the congress of the United States.

Our country has come to a crossroad, and now you have the power to change the political landscape of America. As I have said time and time again, if you elect me to be your face in congress, there are several things I will do to ensure that your needs are met day in and day out across this land.

First of all, I plan on proposing new legislation that will invest more tax dollars in our public schools, not only to meet the needs of today, but also to encourage developing minds for the future. Such new funding would be used to hire and retain good teachers, build and renovate new schools, and give appropriate tax breaks to classroom teachers. To accomplish this, I am proposing no new taxes increases, but rather a rechanneling of our existing tax revenue to meet these demands. Now, the incumbent and his staff have been talking about this for years with little progress. I plan to change all of this legislation now.

Second, economic development is on the minds of most of you, particularly with regard to our downtown area. For many years, economic prosperity has been neglected by current government leaders, and I plan to change all of that. I am proposing a city center revitalization project that would promote new businesses, new residential areas, and new open green areas to bring people back to the heart of our city. Current leaders have allowed the new city to die, preferring to invest in sport arenas in the outlying areas.

And third, I am proposing the construction of a light rail train system, to be built over the next decade, to meet the growing demands of better and more efficient transportation for years to come. My opponent and his administration have lacked the vision of long-term solutions, preferring to take a look and see approach. Such a short sighted stance fails to consider the needs of future generations . . . our children and our grandchildren. My generation doesn't want to be remembered for a road we build today, but for a more visionary transportation system for our future.

And finally, my opponent has cited my inexperience as a reason why you shouldn't vote for me. However, I am not a career politician who has lost touch with the everyday needs and concerns of day-to-day people. My work as an educator and business owner has given me a unique perspective on the pains and challenges you face. If elected, I promise to give my all to my elected position and make sure your issues and concerns are fully addressed at the local and national level.

Thank you.

next class
odyssey vocabulary part 1
Odyssey Vocabulary Part 1
  • Contending- (v) to struggle in opposition: to contend with the enemy for control of the port.
  • Formidable-(adj) causing fear, apprehension, or dread: a formidable opponent
  • Mustered-(v) to gather, summon, rouse (often fol. by up): He mustered all his courage.
  • Ravage-(v) to work havoc upon; damage or mar by ravages: a face ravaged by grief
  • Profusion-(n) abundance; abundant quantity
  • Sage-(n) a profoundly wise person; a person famed for wisdom
  • Adversary-(n) a person, group, or force that opposes or attacks; opponent; enemy; foe
  • Stealth-(adj/n) surreptitious; secret; not openly acknowledged: a stealth hiring of the competitor's CEO; the stealth issue of the presidential race.
  • Rancor-(n) bitter, rankling resentment or ill will; hatred; malice
  • Abominably- (adj) repugnantly hateful; detestable; loathsome: an abominable crime.
  • Ardor- (n) great warmth of feeling; fervor; passion: She spoke persuasively and with ardor
  • Tumult- (n) violent and noisy commotion or disturbance of a crowd or mob; uproar: The tumult reached its height during the premier's speech
elements of persuasion
Elements of Persuasion
  • Argument—a collection of evidence assembled to support a point of view
  • Deductive Reasoning—a kind of argument in which one moves from a general observation to specific examples
  • Inductive Reasoning—a kind of argument in which one draws general conclusions from a specific pattern of observations
    • The types of cats I’ve seen have had four legs…therefore, all cats have four legs.
  • Syllogism—a kind of deductive reasoning consisting of a conclusion derived logically from two propositions

Major premise: All mammals are warm-blooded.Minor premise: All black dogs are mammals.Conclusion: Therefore, all black dogs are warm-blooded.

elements of persuasion cont d
Elements of Persuasion cont’d
  • Ethos—the character, or persona, of the writer as perceived by the reader—convince by gaining the reader’s respect/authority
  • Logos (low-gahs)—refers to the logical content of communication, including the information being presented and the organizational structure of that information—convince by using reason
  • Pathos (pay-thahs)—the anticipated emotional reaction of the audience to the content of a speech or written work—convince by engaging the reader’s emotions
  • Logic—the process of using reason to come up with new information based on existing information
  • Value—an idea or principle recognized as important, desirable, or necessary
elements of persuasion in stump speeches
Elements of Persuasion in Stump Speeches
  • Let’s read the example stump speech together, stopping in places where the author uses an emotional appeal (pathos), a logical appeal (logos) or a character/authority appeal (ethos)
  • Get into groups
    • 1. Pathos
    • 2. Logos
    • 3. Ethos
  • How can we use elements of persuasion in our own speeches?
homework review
Homework Review
  • Who is “the Wayfinder”? What kind of literary element is it?
  • Describe one Homeric simile from this section.
  • How does Odysseus become free of Calypso’s spell?
  • After he leaves her island, what happens to him?
pp 1037 1058 calypso and the cyclops questions review
pp 1037-1058: Calypso and the Cyclops Questions Review
  • Who is “the Wayfinder”? What kind of literary element is it? Hermes—epithet
  • Describe one Homeric simile from this section. A man in a distant field, no hearth fires near, will hide a fresh brand in his bed of embers to keep a spark alive for the next day; so in the leaves Odysseus hid himself, while over him Athena showered sleep… (ll 119-123, p 1042)
  • How does Odysseus become free of Calypso’s spell? Athena gets Zeus to demand his release, through Hermes
  • After he leaves her island, what happens to him? Poseidon crashes the raft and Athena and sea nymph help him to island of Scheria, where he falls asleep
homework review continued
Homework Review Continued
  • Whose son is the Cyclops? How does this explain Odysseus’ struggle to get home?
  • According to Greek customs, how should the Cyclops treat Odysseus and his men? How does he treat them?
  • What lie does Odysseus tell the Cyclops? Why?
  • Why didn’t Odysseus kill the Cyclops when he had the chance?
  • Who is the “shepherd with his flock”(line 330)? What literary element is this?
homework review continued1
Homework Review Continued
  • Whose son is the Cyclops? How does this explain Odysseus’ struggle to get home? Poseidon’s; Poseidon dislikes Odysseus, so he gets his son to create an obstacle to his journey
  • According to Greek customs, how should the Cyclops treat Odysseus and his men? How does he treat them? He should give them food before even asking who they are—he does so first and then says he doesn’t care how the gods are offended at unwelcoming people—he then beat and ate two men
  • What lie does Odysseus tell the Cyclops? Why? That his ship was crashed, so that he wouldn’t go against them in that way
  • Why didn’t Odysseus kill the Cyclops when he had the chance? He was afraid that they would die in the cave since they wouldn’t be able to move the boulder
  • Who is the “shepherd with his flock”(line 330)? What literary element is this? Polyphemus, the Cyclops (epithet)
homework review continued2
Homework Review continued
  • What name does Odysseus give the Cyclops? How does this help Odysseus later in the section?
  • Describe the irony from line 404.
  • How do Odysseus and his men escape?
  • Was Odysseus’ taunting of the Cyclops a good idea? Why or why not?
homework review continued3
Homework Review continued
  • What name does Odysseus give the Cyclops? How does this help Odysseus later in the section? Nohbdy; he tells the other Cyclopes that nobody harmed him, so they don’t come to help him
  • Describe the irony from line 404. They make a “wise” reply, but they don’t truly understand the situation—he’s in pain, yet they let his answer turn them away
  • How do Odysseus and his men escape? They hide under the rams and get out when the Cyclops lets them out to graze
  • Was Odysseus’ taunting of the Cyclops a good idea? Why or why not? Probably not—Odysseus’ pride might lead to future difficulties in getting home
poetic and literary elements
Poetic and Literary Elements
  • Epic Hero: The central hero of an epic, the epic hero has larger-than-life powers. Achilles fulfills this role in the Iliad; Odysseus in the Odyssey. Epic heroes are not perfect, but are courageous
  • Epithet—term or phrase accompanying or in place of name
    • "The man of twists and turns" ( Odysseus)
    • "wine-dark sea "
    • "The bewitching nymph" (Calypso)
    • "Son of Cronos" (Zeus)
    • "Cool headed" (Telemachus)
    • "Lord of the war cry" (Menelaus)
poetic and literary elements cont d
Poetic and Literary Elements (cont’d)
  • Imagery: Descriptions appealing to the five senses; helps the reader experience what he or she reads.

A radiance as strong as the moon came flooding through the high roofed halls of generous Alcinous. Walls plated in bronze, crowned with a circling frieze glazed as blue as lapis ran to left and rightfrom outer gates to the deepest court recess and solid gold doors enclosed the palace. Up from the bronze threshold sliver doorposts rose with silver lintel above, and golden handles, too. And dogs of gold and silver were stationed on either side.

  • In Media Res- “in the middle” in Latin; technique where author starts telling story in middle and then goes back via flashback and fills in the events that happened before
poetic and literary elements cont d1
Poetic and Literary Elements (cont’d)
  • Simile—comparison using like or as

Weak as the doe that beds down her fawnsin a mighty lion's den - her newborn sucklings -then trails off to the mountain spurs and grassy bendsto graze her fill, but back the lion comes to his own lairand the master deals both fawns a ghastly, bloody death,just what Odysseus will deal that mob - ghastly death.

  • Flashback- when the narrative goes back in the chronology of the story to a crucial moment.
  • Personification—a nonhuman object is given human characteristics.

ex: When "Dawn" arises with her "rose-red fingers".

  • Pun- A play on words based on similarity of sound between two words with different meanings (By giving Nobody as his name, Odysseus cleverly creates a pun for the unsuspecting Cyclops who shouts the Nobody is injuring him.)
hero cycle
Hero Cycle
  • Archetype—a recurring pattern of character, symbol, or situation found in the literature of all cultures
      • archetypal hero appears in all religions, mythologies, and epics of the world.
      • All archetypal heroes share certain characteristics. (Campbell)
traits of a hero campbell
Traits of a Hero (Campbell)
  • Unusual circumstances of birth; sometimes in danger or born into royalty
  • Leaves family/land &lives with others
  • An event, sometimes traumatic, leads to adventure or quest
  • Special weapon only he can wield
  • Supernatural help
  • Must prove himself many times on adventure
  • Journey and UnhealableWound
  • Hero experiences atonement with the father
  • When the hero dies, he is rewarded spiritually
prefixes 2 1 91
Prefixes 2 #1-9
  • meta-, met- among, between, change, behind, later  metempsychosis= transmigration of the soul
  • para-, par- beside, beyond, near, incorrectly; paradox= beyond opinion
  • peri- around, about;  peripatetic= walking around
  • pre/pro- before, forward, for;  program= something written for
  • poly – many; polysyllabic= having more than three syllables
  • trans – across, beyond; transcendentalism= being beyond ordinary experience
  • un – not, unnecessary
  • semi – half, partly; semiautomatic
  • sub – under; submarine is under the water