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Demand Driven VET System for ASEAN Tourism. Professor Chris Cooper. Presentation. Education Systems in ASEAN The CBT approach Involving industry. Why is a demand driven system important. How do we partner with the tourism industry to achieve this?. Education Systems in ASEAN.

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Demand Driven VET System for ASEAN Tourism

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Presentation Transcript
  • Education Systems in ASEAN
  • The CBT approach
  • Involving industry
Why is a demand driven system important.
  • How do we partner with the tourism industry to achieve this?
education systems in asean
Education Systems in ASEAN

A wide spectrum of approaches is present with two extremes:

  • Educator supply-driven approaches; and
  • Industry demand-driven approaches
  • The CBT technology demands that the industry demand-driven approach is adopted – and can be used as a medium of change
This will demand the integration of industry into education and training systems for tourism

Let’s examine the two approaches in more detail…

educator supply driven systems
Educator Supply-Driven Systems
  • The curriculum is designed, delivered and determined by the educator
  • It assumes staff are capable of understanding the demands of the labour market
  • To move away from this is both threatening - and expensive
  • Danger of education and training becoming increasingly less relevant
  • Threatens competitiveness of tourism
  • Industry not involved
  • There is nothing wrong with this approach if it is used to educate people about tourism for their general interest and awareness.
  • Where it is a problem is when it is used to feed employees to the industry.
  • In this case a demand driven approach is needed
industry driven systems
Industry-Driven Systems
  • The curriculum is designed, delivered and determined by educators in partnership with industry
  • Partnerships are valued
  • This requires a confident, secure and mature governance system, education and tourism sector
  • Assumes personnel on both sides are willing to work with each other and demands a shift in traditional thinking
  • Demands the establishment of industry standards
tourism cbt across asean
Tourism CBT Across ASEAN

A threefold classification of countries in terms of their adoption and use of CBT technology:

  • Users (CBT accepted)
  • Transitionals (CBT in the process of acceptance)
  • Non-users (CBT not yet accepted)

This means that the amount of work to implement a CBT system varies by country

so to summarise a spectrum
So to Summarise… A Spectrum

Supply driven

Demand driven

Industry partners

Government control




so why are we here
So Why are we Here?
  • This workshop is designed to facilitate the movement of ASEAN countries along the spectrum from supply-driven system to demand-driven systems
  • In particular this will involve partnering with the tourism industry
  • And the central use of the common competencies framework
  • Allied with awareness raising and training
  • To deliver a CBT approach
Without the CBT approach, design and implementation of the MRA will be much more difficult
  • So what is required to establish a CBT approach across ASEAN?
  • Briefly recap the basics of CBT
competency based training
Competency Based Training
  • Based upon idea of using competency profiles to predict job performance
  • Disenchantment by industry with education and training
  • Pressure from industry to develop industry relevant standards and education
  • Knowledge economy and flatter structures
  • Globalizing HR
  • In tourism the need for HR for competitiveness
industry involvement
Industry Involvement
  • Vital to respect the views and expertise of industry
  • Industry is the end user of tourism education and training
  • HR must therefore be equipped with relevant skills and competencies to allow industry to perform and be competitive
  • Vital to build industry into the education and training system through partnership
  • Industry intimately involved in specifying competencies, content and assessment
the requirements
The Requirements
  • CBT must be linked to tourism policy and strategy
  • Identify competencies to predict performance in the workplace:
    • Motives
    • Traits
    • Self concept
    • Knowledge
    • Skill
  • Tend to focus on final two
  • Determines unique set of competencies for a particular job function - such as say a waiter.
  • Can be done:
    • Top down; or
    • Bottom up
  • Bottom-up preferred
bottom up profiling
Bottom-Up Profiling
  • Broad competency categories
  • Specific competencies
  • Competency rating
  • Performance standards
  • CBT
  • Need to review and update
industry involvement in cbt
Industry Involvement in CBT
  • Each CBT element assessed against specified standard to be reached by the student. These standards are determined in consultation with industry
  • Industry is competent to assess - master and industry assessors in partnership with educators
  • Balances academic rigor with industry relevance
  • Driven by TRGs in a leadership role
In other words, this is the way that standards are established and conformity assessment can be achieved for the MRA.
the medium for industry involvement
The Medium for Industry involvement?
  • Normally formalized in the form of a training board with representatives from tourism industry sectors, industry associations, government and education institutions
  • Provides the mandate and authority to develop CBT system for tourism
  • Our TRGs are embryo training boards
the role of industry
The Role of Industry
  • Industry role in developing a CBT system - profiles and assessment
  • Delivers materials and industry dimension for educators
  • Acts as a supportive partner
  • Awareness raising – workshops and training
  • Sharing good practice across ASEAN
  • Developing resources – kits, resources and web sites
  • Ensuring industry relevance and updates
the way forward
The Way Forward
  • For each ASEAN country the task will be different.
  • Important to learn from each other in socializing the Framework and integrating industry and education
  • Some models more appropriate than others in particular countries because governance systems for tourism and education differ
  • First step is the national workshops