British and American History Week 16
The Final Exam will be Tuesday, December 27 at 1:30 pm in rooms: 2009级双学位英语1班;2009级双学位英语2班 13 104 2009级双学位英语3班;2009级双学位英语4班13 204 2009级商英专科3班;2009级商英专科4班 13 304 You must take the exam in the correct room. A Few Announcements…
America in the 20th Century Page 326
In the end of the 1800’s an beginning of the 1900s major trends in the US were: Industrialization: big business; steel & oil refining Urbanization: growth of large cities (New York, Chicago) Immigration: new ethnic groups – Eastern & Southern Europe; Roman Catholics & Jews 1865-1900
Monopolies started to arise. Millionaires. Andrew Carnegie: Carnegie Steel Corp John D. Rockefeller: Standard Oil Cornelius Vanderbilt: Railroads The gap between rich and poor was very wide, but there was a growing middle class. Industry Millionaires
New upper class: extreme wealth; life of luxury Middle class: work hard and save money, personal ambition, interest in common good Working class & poor: mostly newly-arrived immigrants Social Divisions
“Muckrakers”: journalists expose corruption and problems with society. Populists: political party for farmers. Labor unions for industrial workers. Personal income tax to redistribute wealth. 1913: Federal Reserve Bank created as America’s central bank. Social Reforms
America started to expand to increase trade. The US purchased Alaska from Russia very cheaply. They also wanted to purchase some smaller islands such as Cuba. Imperialism
Imperialism: Spanish-American War 1898 • Spain controlled Cuba, and didn’t want to sell it. • American newspapers say that the Cubans want to be liberated from Spain. • Problems arise in Cuba, and an American battleship is sent to protect the Americans there. • The ship is attacked and sunk. War with Spain starts. • US invades Cuba and wins. • US and Spain fight in the Philippines, US wins. • US acquires Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico • Cuba was granted independence 1902
America in WWI Page 337
At first, the US stayed neutral. In 1915, Germany sank a US submarine, The Lusitania. But the US still didn’t fight. In 1917, Germany started attacking more submarines. Also, they promised to give part of America to Mexico if Mexico would join Germany. After this, the US joined the war. They began sending soldiers to help France. America in WWI
President Woodrow Wilson: “War to end all wars” & war to “make world safe for democracy”. He wanted to form the “League of Nations” to prevent future wars. World War I, 1914-1918
“Big Four” at Versailles • US, Britain, France, Italy
Treaty of Versailles • Italy wanted land from Austria-Hungary. • France wanted to punish Germany and set up a buffer between them. • England wanted to protect and expand its empire. • U.S. wanted justice and fairness, and the U.S. soon gave up these ideals.
Versailles Treaty • Americans were disillusioned with treaty and began to retreat from world affairs. • Possibly the worst peace treaty in history. • Germany forced to sign “War Guilt Clause” admitting sole responsibility for war. • This directly led to rise of Hitler. • Failure of Versailles Treaty directly led to World War II.
America After WWI Page 340 Free Powerpoint Templates
In 1917, there was a Communist (“Bolshevik”) Revolution in Russia. Several American millionaires received mail bombs – (capitalism and communism are opposites, so some people were angry at them.) Americans assumed the bombs were sent by Russians. So Americans became very suspicious of Russia and communism. Americans who believed in communism were arrested throughout the US. The Red Scare
In 1919 a law was made making it illegal to sell alcohol. Many Americans believed that use of alcohol led to crime. People still sold it illegally and became very rich. Prohibition of Alcohol
America in the 1920’s • DisillusionmentwithEuropeanpowers. • Manykilled in WWI. • « Roaring 20’s »describes the attitude in America. • Drinking, partying, forgettingyourproblems. • Financial prosperity – extra money to waste. • Desire to be « modern » (womenwith short hair, new clothing styles, etc.) • New music – jazz. • New motion pictures (movies). • Womengot the right to vote.
Henry Ford, assembly-line mass production, & Model T car 1903 Wright Brothers “Flyer” 1927 Charles Lindberg first solo transatlantic flight 1927 First sound movie Economic & investment boom Industry & Technology
Stock speculation was popular. 1929 Stock Market Crash: panic selling. Corporation bankruptcies. Bank failures. Unemployment. Farmers abandon crops due to high cost. Homelessness. It lasted until late 30s. The Great Depression
In the 30s there was a drought in Oklahoma. The land became so dry, the soil began to blow away. The farmers had to abandon the land. This added to the economic hardship. The Dust Bowl
The New Deal • FDR: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1933-1945 • 100 days: 70 bills to deal with Depression • 3Rs: Relief, Recovery, Reform • Agencies to create jobs: • CCC: Civilian Conservation Corps • WPA: Works Progress Administration
AAA: Agricultural Adjustment Act (farm production reduced to increase prices) TVA: Tennessee Valley Authority (built dams for flood control, irrigation, electricity, recreation) Social Security System (unemployment compensation & old-age pensions) Many more acts & agencies created The New Deal
By 1937 US economy was not much better than in 1933. The New Deal did not end the Depression World War II ended the Depression New Deal
America During and After WWII Page 351 Free Powerpoint Templates
Progression of WWII • Original problems in Europe had not been solved. • Adolf Hitler used unrest in Germany to inspire followers. • When he attacked Poland, its allies France and Britain had to fight to defend it. • Hitler then invaded France, France surrendered in 1940. Britain had to fight alone. • Germany attacked Britain by air and sea. • Britain held on until the Allied forces invaded France and defeated Germany.
Germany conquers France, Norway, other countries. President Roosevelt wants to help Britain, but is prevented by American public opinion. War in Europe