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Chapter 51 Biofuels: a recipe for disaster - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 51 Biofuels: a recipe for disaster. By Joven Sumal. What are Biofuels. Biofuels are fuels made from renewable energy sources (Plants/Organic Waste) Common plants used to make biofuels are rapeseed, cane, sunflowers, wheat, corn and oil palm trees . Biofuels for Fossil F uels.

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Chapter 51 Biofuels: a recipe for disaster


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what are biofuels
What are Biofuels
  • Biofuels are fuels made from renewable energy sources (Plants/Organic Waste)
  • Common plants used to make biofuels are rapeseed, cane, sunflowers, wheat, corn and oil palm trees
biofuels for fossil f uels
Biofuels for Fossil Fuels
  • Biofuels would reduce our dependence on environmentally damaging fossil fuels
  • Biofuels can be our new friendly gas for transportation that does not emit harmful gases (CO2)
  • Environmentalist fears that too much of the farmland to produce these biofuels will be to grow fuel and less on growing crops
biofuel production
Biofuel Production
  • To grow Biofuels require good soil, fertilizer, and tons of water
  • More production of biofuels=less production of food which means food prices will rise
  • As people are already suffering from starvation, biofuels will only make those matters worse.
  • Farmers want to make profit meaning they will put their work and energy into growing biofuels than food
fuel or food
Fuel or Food
  • Since Biofuels require tons of water, our worlds fresh water reserves will be used in no time
  • Without proper water, farmers won’t be able to grow food
  • In order to grow crops at the maximum speed a mass amount of chemical fertilizer will be used putting our phosphate reserves in a critical position
  • To grow biofuels, large amounts of arable land (land good for growing crops) will be needed, but the world cannot give up most of its land on biofuels because there won’t be any land to grow food
burning rainforests
Burning Rainforests
  • Palm oil is used for the production of food
  • Palm oil is the most cost effective way of producing biofuels and is becoming a demand now because of people wanting to use biofuels
  • To make oil-palm plantations it will require deforestation and to burn them down
  • This is important because our forests are vital carbon sinks and when they’re taken down they will release billions of tons of carbon that they’ve stored, back into the atmosphere
  • Not to forget that some species will become extinct
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzXAIb6xQSk
peat fires release co2
Peat Fires Release CO2
  • Peat bogs are bogs with wet spongy ground of decomposing vegetation and the soil is unfit for raising crops unless they are cut and dried but only then they could be used for fuel.
  • Peat bogs store carbon and when they are drained to grow oil-palm trees the peat bogs will become a fire hazard
  • If one peat bog catches on fire it releases about 3 billion tons of carbon(equal to 40% of all fossil fuels that year)
  • As a demand for biofuels grow, these fires may become a yearly occurrence
carbon emissions
Carbon Emissions
  • In 2010 there was a rise in carbon emission from a global recession rebound
  • A total of 10 billion tons of carbon released in 2010 and was the first time emissions hit the 10 billion mark
  • The CO2 released remain in the atmosphere for years and it traps all the heat from the sun
  • Oceans and planetary vegetation absorbed the rest of the CO2
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oCWYaPNGH1s
decarbonizing
Decarbonizing
  • Transportation counts for a third of global CO2 emissions
  • Large amount of pollution from the emissions is causing human health problems
  • International shipping is becoming a problem because over the years it has increased by 50% and also causing a lot of pollution on the ocean
  • Air travel is the fastest growing source of CO2 emissions because planes are to be flown fast
diesel vs gasoline
Diesel vs. Gasoline
  • Diesel engines are the worlds most efficient (goes farther on a liter of fuel)
  • Diesel powered vehicles produced higher levels of toxic emissions than other gasoline engines
charfuel
Charfuel
  • Carbon Fuels LLC is an energy development company in the U.S and developed charfuel which is liquid fuel from coal
  • Charfuel’s refining process is environmentally friendly and can be used to produce a variety of fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, clean diesel)
  • An advantage to Charfuel is no new gas stations will be needed
  • Coal is more abundant than oil
  • New method will result in clean, abundant, alternative fuel source that will stabilize fuel prices, lower emissions and bring energy security to North America.
fuel efficient vehicles
Fuel-Efficient Vehicles
  • Fuel-efficient vehicles that are more environmentally friendly are, the Smart Car, Toyota Prius, Chevrolet Volt, The Nissan Leaf (fully electric car), and the Tesla Model S.
public transit more appealing
Public Transit More Appealing
  • Make it faster and cheaper
  • More knowledge (delivering information to households)
  • Propose carbon tax on fuel
  • Lots must be easy to access and well supervised if drivers are going to leave their cars to go on a bus
  • Wait time reduced (public transit coming more often)
skytrain
SkyTrain
  • Fast and leave frequently
  • Few people need to own cars
  • Transports large amounts of people each day
  • Electric powered and fully automated (no driver)
  • Do not omit harmful global warming gases
  • The cement that is used to build skytrainsis one of the worst CO2 emitters
rails
Rails
  • Can’t run as frequently as skytrains
  • Run on railway tracks on the ground
  • The first mean of mass transportation
  • Solution to traffic, health problems related to pollution and air pollution
  • high-speed trains have the potential to remove tens of millions of vehicles
  • Less impact on wildlife habitat by not leaking oil, gas and other harmful fluids
  • Easier to board without delay
  • Building rails cost half as much as to improving highways and airports
airplanes
Airplanes
  • 10% of greenhouse gas emissions from transportation is from aircrafts
  • Airline companies want to reduce emissions by 50%
  • Achieve this by new fuels, advance engine technology, and lighter and bigger materials
  • New aerodynamic plane design would improve fuel efficiency by 20%
  • Lufthansa and KML have been using recycled cooking oil as fuel
  • In the past propeller planes were the most fuel efficient than jetliners using only 59% fuel
ships and their containers
Ships and their Containers
  • Steel shipping containers were very heavy even before goods were packed in them
  • Now new composite body containers made from fiber-reinforced polymer will be as strong as steel, much lighter and rust resistance.
  • The new Maersk transporters will have 2 engines which will use engine waste heat to create added power
  • Maersk will only require half as much fuel therefore reducing greenhouse gas emissions
  • Ships have been the dirtiest of the polluters from their fuel burned
  • Norwegian shipbuilder today is working on the first ship to be powered by liquid natural gas (Eco Ship)
  • The new “Eco Ship” will reduce CO2 emissions by 30%, nitrogen oxide by 80% and oxide by 95%.
  • Dutch Shipbuilder Fair Transport B.V is working on a smaller transport vessel which will be powered by a diesel electric engine only when the wind is not blowing
  • This new ship would reduce fuel consumption by 90%
green buildings
Green Buildings
  • The heating and cooling of buildings is the source of 2,200 megatons of atmospheric CO2 annually which accounts for 35% of the continents total CO2 emissions
  • Green building construction can reduce energy use and CO2 emissions by 70%
  • They are made from non-toxic, renewable or recycled materials, use less power, less heat or air conditioning and less water
  • Designed to have minimum impact on the environment by reducing the amount of waste
  • Let in maximum light but better insulated
  • May use solar heating, photovoltaic solar panels, geothermal heating and cooling, or wind power to produce electricity to produce some of their own power
  • Cost more to make than normal buildings