The concept of sports injury
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The Concept of Sports Injury. Sports Medicine Mike Carroll. Defining Sports Injury. To qualify as an injury under (ISS), that injury must meet the following criteria occurs as a result of participation in an organized practice or game

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The concept of sports injury
The Concept of Sports Injury

  • Sports Medicine

  • Mike Carroll

Defining sports injury
Defining Sports Injury

  • To qualify as an injury under (ISS), that injury must meet the following criteria

  • occurs as a result of participation in an organized practice or game

  • requires medical attention by a team athletic trainer or physician

  • results in restriction of the student athlete’s participation or performance for one or more days beyond the day of the injury

Acute vs chronic
Acute vs. Chronic

  • Acute injuries- characterized by rapid onset, resulting from a traumatic event

  • Acute injuries are followed immediately by a pattern of signs and symptoms, such as pain, swelling, and loss of function

  • Caused by critical force, such as: football

Acute vs chronic1
Acute vs. Chronic

  • Chronic injuries-characterized by a slow, insidious onset, implying a gradual development of structural damage

  • Not associated with a single traumatic event, rather, they develop progressively over time

  • Often occur in athletes who are involved in activities that require repeated, continuous movements, such as running

  • sometimes referred to as overuse injuries

  • common sites for injuries: Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, rotator cuff

Tissues involved
Tissues Involved

  • Soft Tissue- includes muscles, fascia, tendons, joint capsules, ligaments, blood vessels and nerves

  • Injuries involve contusions (bruises), sprains (ligaments/capsules), and strains (muscles/tendons)

  • Skeletal Tissue- any bony structure in the body

  • Example: Ankle Sprain? Fractured Wrist?

Catastrophic injuries
Catastrophic Injuries

  • involve damage to the brain and/or spinal cord and are potentially life threatening or permanent

  • HS and College: includes skull or spinal fracture

  • Direct Catastrophic- result directly from participation in the skills of a given sport (sustaining a neck fracture during a tackle in football)

  • Indirect Catastrophic- caused by systematic failure resulting from exertion while participating in a sports activity ( suffering a heat stroke during a cross-country run)


  • Sprains- injury to a joint and the surrounding structures, primarily ligaments and/or joint capsules

  • Severity of sprains is highly variable depending on the forces involved


  • SNAI- Describes three categories of sprains, based on the level of severity

  • First-Degree

  • Second-Degree

  • Third-Degree

First degree sprains
First-Degree Sprains

  • the mildest form of sprain

  • only mild pain and disability

  • demonstrate little or no swelling

  • associated with minor ligament damage

Second degree sprain
Second-Degree Sprain

  • more severe; imply more actual damage to the ligaments involved

  • increase amount of pain and dysfunction

  • swelling is more pronounced and abnormal motion is present

  • such injuries tend to reoccur

Third degree sprain
Third-Degree Sprain

  • most severe form

  • imply a complete tear of the ligament(s)

  • extensive damage, pain, swelling

  • hemorrhage will be significant

  • considerable loss of joint stability


  • Strains- injuries to muscles, tendons, or the junction between the two, commonly known as the musculotendinous joint (MTJ)

  • Most common location of a strain is the MTJ


  • SNAI presents three categories of strains

  • First-Degree Strains

  • Second-Degree Strains

  • Third-Degree Strains

First degree strain
First-Degree Strain

  • mildest form with little associated damage to muscle and tendon structures

  • pain is most noticeable during use

  • there may be mild swelling and muscle spasm present

Second degree strain
Second-Degree Strain

  • imply more extensive damage to the soft-tissue structures

  • pain, swelling, and muscle spasm are more pronounced and functional loss in moderate

  • these types of injuries are associated with excessive, forced stretching or a failure in the synergistic action in the muscle group

Third degree strain
Third-Degree Strain

  • most severe form and imply a complete rupture of the soft-tissue structures

  • may occur at a variety of locations, including the bony attachment of the tendon (avulsion fracture), the tissues between the tendon and muscle (MTJ) or in muscle itself

  • a defect may be apparent through the skin with significant swelling


  • What is a contusion?

  • bruise or injury to soft tissue that does not break the skin


  • Contusions result from a direct blow to the body surface, which cause a compression of the underlying tissue(s) as well as the skin


  • are typically characterized as being associated with pain, stiffness, swelling, ecchymosis (discoloration), and hematoma (pooling of blood)


  • if not treated properly, such injuries to muscle tissue can result in a condition known as myositis ossificans, which involves the development of bonelike formations in the muscle tissue


  • Fractures and dislocations represent two categories of injuries involving either bones or joints of the body

  • Defined by the National Safety Council as “a break or crack in a bone”


  • NSC recognizes two categories of fractures

  • Closed

  • Open or Compound


  • Closed: bone ends not breaking through the skin

  • Open/Compound: bone ends breaking through the skin


  • Open/Compound fractures are potentially more serious because of the risk of infection related to the open wound

  • Control of bleeding may be necessary depending on the severity and location of the wound


  • NSC provides the following descriptions of signs and symptoms:

  • Swelling, Deformity, Pain and Tenderness, Loss of use, Grating Sensation, History of the Injury

Fractures signs symptoms
FracturesSigns & Symptoms

  • Swelling- caused by bleeding; it occurs rapidly after a fracture

  • Deformity- This is not always obvious. Compare the injured with the uninjured opposite body part when checking for deformity

  • Pain and Tenderness- Commonly found only at the injury site. The athlete will usually be able to point to the site of pain. A useful procedure for detecting fractures is to feel gently along the bones

  • Loss of Use- Inability to use the injured part. Guarded motion occurs because movement produces pain, and the athlete will refuse to use the injured limb

  • Grating Sensation- Do not move the injured limb in an attempt to see if a grating sensation called crepitation can be felt (sometimes heard) when broken bone ends rub together

  • History of Injury- Suspect a fracture whenever severe forces are involved, especially in high-risk sports such as tackle football

Traumatic fractures
Traumatic Fractures

  • Five Types: Green Stick, Tranverse, Oblique, Comminuted, Impacted

  • Copy illustration of each type in your notes


Stress fracture
Stress Fracture

  • Stress Fracture- small crack or break in a bone related to excessive, repeated overloads; also known as overuse fracture or march fracture

  • Signs and Symptoms often confused with less serious sports-related injuries

  • Often present physician with a difficult diagnosis, because during the initial phases, X-ray examinations may not show the fracture

Salter harris fracture
Salter-Harris Fracture

  • Salter-Harris Fracture- category of fractures unique to the adolescent athlete that involves the epiphyseal growth plate

  • Five types of SH fractures based on there location of the fracture line(s) across the epiphyseal region of the bone

  • Epiphysis- Cartilaginous growth region of the bone (end of bone, knob)


  • defined as “the displacement of contiguous surfaces of bones comprising a joint”

  • Two types: subluxation and luxation

  • can occur in any articulation

  • Shoulders and fingers are most common sites of dislocations


  • Subluxation- takes place when the bones of a joint are only partially displaced

  • Luxation- when the bone of a joint are totally displaced


  • Remember that sprains involve damage to the tissues surrounding joints- capsules and ligaments

  • dislocations presents many of the same signs and symptoms

  • first aid treatment involves combine care given for sprains and fractures