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Convention and Compromise . Chapter 3, Section 2. Unpacking the Standards. Describe the weaknesses of government under the Articles of Confederation. Explain how national leaders met to produce a new Constitution.

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Convention and compromise

Convention and Compromise

Chapter 3, Section 2


Unpacking the standards
Unpacking the Standards

Describe the weaknesses of government under the Articles of Confederation.

Explain how national leaders met to produce a new Constitution.

Discuss how the Constitutional Convention worked to create a new government for the country.

After reading the section, you will be able to:


Troubles under the articles
Troubles Under the Articles

The new nation faced difficult problems and many Americans believed the Confederation government was too weak to deal with these challenges.

After the Revolutionary War ended, the U.S. went through a depression.

When economic activity slowed and unemployment increased

  • Farmers Suffered

  • could not sell their goods

  • could not pay their taxes

  • many jailed

  • property seized

Murmurs of protest soon grew into revolt . . . .


Shays s rebellion
Shays’s Rebellion

Shays, a former Army captain, and other angry farmers, forced courts in western Pennsylvania to close so judges could not confiscate farmers’ lands.

January 1787

Daniel Shays

Shays leads 1000 farmers towards the federal arsenal in Springfield, Illinois.

The state militia ordered the farmers to halt and then shot over the heads.

Militia fired again, killing 4 rebels. Shays and his followers scatter, and the uprising is over.

What do you think an “arsenal” is?

Shoulder partner


Many national leaders frightened
Many National Leaders Frightened

They worried that the government could not control unrest and prevent violence.

#1 – Tell your partner what Washington means

#2 – Tell you partner what Jefferson means

Shoulder

Partner

“mankind, when left to themselves, are unfit for their own government”

George Washington

“A little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing.”

Thomas Jefferson


The issue of slavery
The Issue of Slavery

Can the principles of the Declaration of Independence and slavery be reconciled?

(can they coexist in harmony?)

The Revolutionary War brought attention to the contradiction between the American battle for liberty and the practice of slavery.

  • The North takes steps to end the institution of slavery:

  • Quakers organize the 1st antislavery society

  • PA passed a law providing for the gradual freeing of slaves

  • Some slaveholders encouraged manumission (the freeing of enslaved people)


A call for change
A Call for Change

Some national leaders called for revision of the Articles of Confederation

James Madison

Alexander Hamilton

At first, Washington was not enthusiastic about the movement to revise the Articles of Confederation, but changed his mind after hearing about Shays’s Rebellion.



Convention leaders
Convention Leaders

Gouverneur Morris

Final Draft

Edmund Randolph

Virginia

George Washington

Presiding Officer

James Madison

“Father” of the Constitution

Roger Sherman

The Great Compromise


James madison s virginia plan
James Madison’s Virginia Plan

Presented

by

Edmund

Randolph



The great compromise
The Great Compromise

Proposed

by

Roger Sherman

small states

happy

large states

happy


Check for understanding
Check for Understanding

What does “bicameral” mean?

What does the legislative branch do?

What does the United States call its legislative branch?

2 house

make laws

Congress


Another debate count enslaved people
Another Debate Count Enslaved People?

V.

  • Southern States:

  • wanted slaves counted as population to determine representation in the House of Reps.

  • Opposed counting slaves for the purpose of determining taxation

  • Northern States:

  • Opposed counting slaves as population to determine representation on the House of Reps.

  • Favored counting slaves for the purpose of determining taxation

  • The ⅗ Compromise:

  • ⅗ of slaves counted as population in determining representation in the House of Reps.

  • ⅗ of slaves would be counted for the purpose of determining taxation


Compromise
⅗ Compromise

Every 5 slaves would count as 3 white males.


Slave trade
Slave Trade

Congress would not interfere with the slave trade until 1808


Approving the constitution
Approving the Constitution

The Constitution is finished on September 17, 1787

Some delegates worried that without the protection of a bill of rights, the new national government might abuse its power.

What do you think “adequate” means?

Shoulder partner

However, most delegates believed that the Constitution, with its carefully defined listing of government powers, provided adequate protection of individual rights.


Ratifying the constitution
Ratifying the Constitution

The delegates (representatives) at the convention agreed that the Constitution will go into effect when 9 out 13 states ratify it.

ratify =

approve