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Session 5: CSP Overview - 1. Agenda Discussion of Homework Overview Heat Engines Storage Trough Systems Homework Assignment. Learning Objectives. Students should be able to Compare CSP vs. PV in meeting customer needs Describe the three basic CSP approaches and their status

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Session 5: CSP Overview - 1


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    1. Session 5: CSP Overview - 1 Agenda Discussion of Homework Overview Heat Engines Storage Trough Systems Homework Assignment

    2. Learning Objectives • Students should be able to • Compare CSP vs. PV in meeting customer needs • Describe the three basic CSP approaches and their status • Explain how steam, gas turbine and Stirling engines work • Draw a schematic of a power tower system with thermal storage • Modify the above schematic to incorporate a hybrid gas turbine • Calculate the cost-of-electricity for a CSP system • Compare typical CSP and PV plant supply chains • Give examples of current CSP Projects and describe them • Predict how CSP technologies will develop in the future • Conceptually define a CSP system based on given requirements

    3. Example CSP Plants

    4. So What’s New? Dish/Steam Irrigation System circa 1900 at Broadway and the railroad tracks in Tempe, Arizona

    5. Desirable Grid Power • High Quality • Harmonics • Power Factor • Available • Dispatchable • Continuous • Low Cost • Renewable (Gov. Reqt.)

    6. Solar Plant Design Considerations Design Requirements Risk Fossil Fuel (?) Solar Input (Variability) Ambient Conditions Water Electrical Power Solar Plant Design

    7. Basic CSP Concept C O N C E N T R A T O R High Temperature Energy Receiver/Heat Engine Low-level Solar Energy Generator Low Temperature Heat Sink

    8. Heat Engine Efficiency Qin at Thot • Engines operate on the 2T Principle • Carnot efficiency • Engines are limited by the Carnot efficiency • Goal is to maximize efficiency to reduce collector field size • At some point, the cost of higher efficiency increases overall cost W, Useful Work Engine Qout at Tcold η = Thot – Tcold = 1 – Tcold Thot Thot

    9. Power Cycle Efficiencies Source: Summary Report for Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Workshop, NREL/TP-5500-52134 August 2011

    10. United States Solar Market Source: SES Presentation toAZ/NV SAE, 2005

    11. International Solar Market Source: SES Presentation toAZ/NV SAE, 2005

    12. Basic CSP Concept C O N C E N T R A T O R High Temperature Energy Receiver/Heat Engine Low-level Solar Energy Generator Low Temperature Heat Sink

    13. CSP System Elements Receiver Generator Concentrator Heat Engine Balance Of Plant GRID

    14. CSP System Elements Balance Of Plant GRID Receiver Generator Concentrator Heat Engine • Trough • Heliostats(Power Tower) • Dish • Linear • Cavity • Tubular • Volumetric • Synchronous • Induction • Rankine • Steam • Organic • Gas Turbine • Stirling • Combined • Hybrid (fossil fuel)

    15. Types of Concentrating Solar Power Systems Source: Powerpoint Presentation, Muller-Steinhagen et al., Concentrating Solar Power: A Vision for Sustainable Electricity Generation, Institute for Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center, Stuttgart (DLR)

    16. Types of Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    17. Types of CSP Systems • Single-axis tracking • Parabolic troughs • Moderate temperature • Central engine • Moderate efficiency • Dual-axis tracking • Heliostats • Flat facets • High temperature • Central engine • Higher efficiency • Dual-axis tracking • Parabolic facets • High temperature • Distributed engines • Highest efficiency

    18. Types of Receivers Linear Receiver Cavity Receiver Tubular Volumetric • Power Tower • Dish • Quartz window • Gas working fluid • High temperature • Low convection losses • Parabolic trough • Moderate temperature • Power Tower • Dish • Gas and liquid fluid • High temperature • Convection losses

    19. Cavity Receiver Source: SES Presentation toAZ/NV SAE, 2005

    20. Volumetric Receiver Source: Powerpoint Presentation, Muller-Steinhagen et al., Concentrating Solar Power: A Vision for Sustainable Electricity Generation, Institute for Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center, Stuttgart (DLR)

    21. Heat Engines Wet Cooling Dry Cooling Dry Cooling No Cooling Gas Turbine Cycle (30-40% efficient) Steam (Rankine) Cycle (30-35% efficient) Stirling Cycle (40-45% efficient) Trough Power Tower Power Tower Dish Dish

    22. Steam (Rankine) Cycle Heater Gen Gen Turbine Pump Condenser P Cooler Ambient Air

    23. Gas Turbine (Brayton) Cycle Qin from fuel Combustor Turbine Gen Gen Compressor Ambient Air Ambient Air

    24. Semi-Closed Brayton Cycle Qin Heater Turbine Gen Compressor Gen Ambient Air Ambient Air

    25. Recuperated Semi-Closed Brayton Qin Ambient Air Recuperator Turbine Heater Gen Compressor Gen Ambient Air

    26. Stirling Engine is Closer to Carnot For expansion and compression processes: • In Rankine system, Thot varies, butTcold is relatively constant • In Brayton system, Thot varies and Tcoldvaries • In Stirling system, Thot and Tcold approach constant values

    27. Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005

    28. CSP System Elements Receiver Generator Concentrator Heat Engine Balance Of Plant GRID

    29. CSP System Elements Losses Receiver Generator Concentrator Heat Engine Losses Losses Losses Balance Of Plant Losses GRID

    30. CSP System Elements Losses Receiver Generator Concentrator Heat Engine Losses Losses Losses Balance Of Plant Losses Sunlight-to-Busbar Efficiency ηsys = ηconcηrecηengηgenηBOP GRID

    31. CSP Advantage: Storage Storage Receiver Generator Concentrator Heat Engine Balance Of Plant GRID

    32. Storage Advantages • Extends operation during peak demand hours • Maintains output during transient clouds • Provides power on-demand (dispatchable) Source: NREL website

    33. Trough Plant Components B C Source: NREL A Source: NREL

    34. Power Tower Plant Components A B Source: NREL C

    35. Dish/Engine Plant Components A B C Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005

    36. Levelized Cost of Electricity Comparison Source: PowerPoint presentation, Brett Prior, November 2011, GTM Research, www.greentechmedia.com/article/read/can-solar-thermal-be-cheaper-than-pv/

    37. Trough CSP

    38. SEGS Units • Solar Electric Generating Systems • Mohave Desert, Built 1984-1990 • Trough/Steam/Evap. Cooling • Up to 25% Output from Natural Gas • 9 Plants: 14, 30, 80 MWe • 354 MWe Total Output Aerial view of five (SEGS III – VII), 30-MW SEGS solar plants Source: NREL

    39. SEGS VI: 30 MWe • Kramer Junction • Start-up: 1988 • Field Supply Temp: 390 degrees Celsius • Field Size: 188,000 m2 • Luz International • KJC Operating Company Figure 1.1. Parabolic troughs at a 30 MWe (net) SEGS plant in Kramer Junction, CAJanuary 2006 • Angela M. Patnode • “Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants”

    40. Solar Field Design • Single-axis tracking collector troughs • Float-formed, parabolic-curved mirrors • Heat collection element (HCE) runs through focal line • Thermal energy into heat transfer fluid (HTF) • Trough axes north-south • Track east to west Solar Collector Assembly (SCA) SOURCE: January 2006 • Angela M. Patnode • “Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants”

    41. Figure 2.1. Layout of the SEGS VI solar trough field. The superimposed arrows indicate the direction of heat transfer fluid flow. (Photo source: KJC Operating Company, 2005)January 2006 • Angela M. Patnode• “Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” SEGS VI Layout

    42. January 2006 • Angela M. Patnode • “Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” Parabolic Trough Collector End of Row Flexible Joints

    43. Figure 2.3. Schematic of a Solar Collector Assembly (SCA) (Source: Stuetzle, 2002)January 2006 • Angela M. Patnode • “Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” Overall Trough Collector Design

    44. Heat Collection Element (HCE) • Steel absorber tube 70 mm in diameter • Coated with either black chrome or cermet • Vacuum between absorber and glass envelopeto limit heat loss Photo source: Solel UVAC, 2004

    45. Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) • Synthetic oil -- mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide (Therminol VP-1) • Receives solar energy and transfers it to steam cycle in a three-stage boiler (reheater not shown) Superheater Steam Cycle/ Generator Solar Field Steam Generator Pump Pre-heater

    46. Source:G. Cohen, Solargenix Energypresentation to IEEE Renewable Energy, Las Vegas, May 16, 2006 Simplified Overall Schematic

    47. Transfer of HTF Energy to Steam Plant Source: January 2006 • Angela M. Patnode • “Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants”

    48. Figure 2.1. Layout of the SEGS VI solar trough field. The superimposed arrows indicate the direction of heat transfer fluid flow. (Photo source: KJC Operating Company, 2005)Source: January 2006 • Angela M. Patnode• “Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” SEGS VI Layout

    49. SEGS VI: Solar Field Layout Row of 8 SCAs East Field (25 Parallel Loops) Row of 8 SCAs Row of 8 SCAs Row of 8 SCAs Steam Heat Exchangers Row of 8 SCAs West Field (25 Parallel Loops) Row of 8 SCAs Adapted from “Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” Jan 2006, Angela M. Patnode Row of 8 SCAs Row of 8 SCAs

    50. SEGS VI Performance June 21, 2004 December 21, 2004 Why is Solar Input so low in winter? Source: January 2006 • Angela M. Patnode • “Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants”