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SANITATION THE FOUNDATION OF FOOD SAFETY. Retail Meat & Poultry Processing Training Modules. Developed under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Developed by Minnesota Department of Agriculture

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sanitation the foundation of food safety

Retail Meat & Poultry Processing

Training Modules

Developed under a cooperative agreement with the

United States Department of Agriculture

Food Safety and Inspection Service

Developed by

Minnesota Department of Agriculture

Dairy and Food Inspection Division,

Hennepin County Environmental Health

Minnesota Department of Health

University of Minnesota

September 2004

What is sanitation?

Good Retail Practices (GRPs)

Sanitation Standard Operation Procedures (SSOPs)

Foodborne illness

Food allergens

5 step cleaning and sanitizing process

Difference between cleaning and sanitizing

Types of cleaners

Biofilm—a hidden hazard

Hot water sanitizing

Chemical sanitizing

Factors affecting sanitizing process

Chemical safety


Who’s job is it?

Developing written procedures

Monitoring sanitation

Corrective action

Results of poor sanitation

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Discuss the importance of sanitation and why it is essential in preventing foodborne illness.
  • Explain the difference between cleaning and sanitation.
  • Perform the 5 steps of cleaning and sanitizing correctly.
  • Define biofilms and explain the relationship of cleaning and sanitizing to prevent biofilms.
  • Select appropriate cleaners and sanitizers.
  • Practice safety recommendations to avoid the hazards of cleaners and sanitizers.
  • List 2 ways to monitor effective sanitation.
what is sanitation
What is “Sanitation”?

The process of creating conditions that promote the safe production of food

sanitation basics
Sanitation Basics
  • GRPs – Good Retail PracticesThe basic requirements to ensure production of wholesome food including employee practices, buildings/facilities, equipment/utensils, and production/process controls.
  • SSOPs –Sanitation Standard Operating ProceduresThe specific steps taken to perform sanitation tasks including the details of your sanitation procedures and frequency.
why is sanitation so important
Why is Sanitation so important?

Many cases of foodborne illness are

associated with sanitation problems.

  • The complete sanitation process will reduce bacteria and viruses that cause foodborne illness.
    • Essential to programs such as HACCP.
  • Ensures quality and consistency of food products.
  • Controls allergen cross-contamination.
a hidden hazard food allergens
A Hidden Hazard: Food Allergens
  • Proteins some foods cause allergic reactions
  • Eight food groups cause 90% of food allergic reactions
    • Milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish
a hidden hazard food allergens10
A Hidden Hazard: Food Allergens
  • Foods must be labeled accurately
  • Effective cleaning procedures eliminate residues that cause food allergies
cleaning and sanitizing multiple step process
Cleaning and SanitizingMultiple Step Process
  • Pre-cleaning – Scrape and rinse to remove loose food.
  • Wash - Use detergent solutions to remove stuck-on food.
  • Rinse to remove food and detergent.
  • Sanitize to kill attached surviving bacteria and viruses.
  • Air Dry.
where to wash
Where to wash?
  • Equipment sink
  • Clean in Place
  • Mechanical Dish Machines
two critical components
Two Critical Components
  • Cleaning

the chemical and physical process of removing dirt, food, or soil from surfaces

  • Sanitizing

results in removing or killing bacteria and viruses

why clean
Why Clean?

A clean surface is needed so that the bacteria will be killed by the action of the sanitizer and the food allergens are eliminated!

types of cleaners
Types of Cleaners

Each type has a specific function – choose an appropriate product for your needs

  • Soap/Detergent
  • Heavy Duty Detergent
  • Abrasive Cleaners
  • Acid Cleaners
  • Degreasers
cleaning process
Cleaning Process

Success depends upon:

  • Proper strength of the detergent solution
  • Temperature of the detergent solution
  • Contact time of the solution with the food contact surface
  • Mechanical Action/Scrubbing

Control of these 4 steps will result in a clean surface!

a hidden hazard biofilms
A Hidden Hazard: Biofilms

A thin, not visible, layer of food and bacteria that has built up on a surface.

  • Biofilms can form over a long period of time as a result of poor cleaning procedures.
  • They prevent cleaners and sanitizers from effectively reaching all surfaces.
  • Hot WaterMust maintain appropriate water temperature
  • ChemicalSeveral different types
chemical sanitizers several types
Chemical SanitizersSeveral Types
  • Chlorine
  • Iodine
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds
  • Acid–Detergent Sanitizer
  • Others
sanitizing process
Sanitizing Process

Success depends on:

  • A clean surface
  • Clean sanitizing solution
  • Proper strength of sanitizing solution
  • Proper water temperature
  • Sufficient contact time for effectiveness
chemicals read the label
Chemicals: Read the Label

Chemicals must be used

according to label directions

  • Sanitizer must be approved for use on food contact surfaces.
  • Use proper water temperature and rate as stated on the label.
  • MSDS
chemical safety
Chemical Safety


  • Hazardous reactions will occur
  • Cause injury or illness to employees or consumers
  • May decrease effectiveness of either product
chemical dispensing systems
Chemical Dispensing Systems
  • Automatically measure cleaning and sanitizing chemicals
  • Must have adequate backflow protection
  • Must still monitor sanitizer concentration
frequency of cleaning sanitizing
Frequency of Cleaning & Sanitizing

Is determined by many factors like:

  • Time
  • Temperature in the work area
  • Change in foods being processed
    • Raw to ready-to-eat
    • Allergen to non-allergen
    • Different meat species
who s job is it
Who’s job is it?

Sanitation is everyone’s responsibility!

  • Employee training should include the basics of sanitation.
  • Training requires understanding and support from management.
developing ssop s written procedures
Developing SSOP’sWritten Procedures
  • Detailed procedures for cleaning and sanitizing.
  • A checklist of equipment to be cleaned and the frequency to be cleaned.
  • Steps for the tear-down and re-assembly of equipment.
  • Procedures and schedule for cleaning non-food contact surfaces and facilities.
  • Instructions for use of sanitation chemicals.
more ssops
More SSOPs
  • Employee practices
  • Steps for preparing and storing foods
    • Monitoring temperatures
    • Preventing cross contamination
  • Pest Control
  • Facility and Grounds Maintenance
monitoring sanitation
Monitoring Sanitation
  • Do a ‘walk through’ of the facility
  • LOOK - see that equipment is clean
  • Watch employee handwashing
  • Use test strips to check sanitizer strength
  • Use a bioluminator or other tool
results of monitoring
Results of Monitoring
  • Use a check list and write down what you find.
  • Are employees following procedures?
  • How effective are your cleaning procedures?
  • Use your results to solve or prevent problems and re-occurrences

Maintain Records

corrective action
Corrective Action
  • When an item on the check list is missed or poorly done, make sure it is corrected.
  • Be sure to re-check and then write down that it was corrected.
results of poor sanitation
Results of Poor Sanitation

Reduced shelf life

Poor quality product

Customer illnesses

Medical claims, lawsuits

Food recalls

Fines or other regulatory action

Bad publicity

Loss of customers

Loss of your job



  • Cleaning and sanitizing is a multiple step process
  • Differences between cleaning and sanitizing
  • Develop written SSOPs
  • Monitoring is critical to identifying sanitation failures
wrap up
  • Do you have any questions?
  • What information was new?
  • How will you apply what you learned today?
  • Posttest