PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Maps

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# PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Maps - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Maps. Chapter 2 C.J. Cox. Chapter 2 Concepts. Key properties of maps Great Circles Map Projections Scale Latitude &amp; Distance Longitude &amp; Time Magnetic North Township &amp; Range ( Survey System) Contour Maps Remote Sensing. Key Terms.

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### PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHYMaps

Chapter 2

C.J. Cox

Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
Key Terms
• Map: a flat representation of a globe
• Cartography - the art and science of mapmaking
Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
4 KEY PROPERTIES OF MAPS

Shape

Area (size)

Distance

Direction

Key Terms
• Conformal Map - shows correct shape
• Equal Area Map - shows correct area
• Rhumb Line - line shows correct direction
• Great Circle - the largest circle that can be drawn on a globe. This circle divides the globe into two halves and is the shortest distance between any two points.
Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
Key Terms
• Great Circle - the largest circle that can be drawn on a globe. This circle divides the globe into two halves and is the shortest distance between any two points.
Key Terms
• Rhumb Line - line shows correct direction
Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
Map Projections
• Projection: The system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map.
• A projection of an image onto another surface
• either a cylinder, a flat plane or a cone
• 3 basic types of projections
• cylindrical projection
• planular projection (also known as azimuthal)
• conical projection

CYLINDRICAL PROJECTION

used by navigators to show direction

Meridians run north & south

Parallels run east & west

Cylindrical Maps

are conformal maps

they conform to the correct shape

CONICAL PROJECTION

used for Mid-Latitude Maps

True Area (between the standard parallels)

Also referred to as equal area maps

PLANULAR PROJECTION

used by pilots

Shows Great Circle Routes

ROBINSON PROJECTION

Compromise projection

Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range (Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
SCALE
• Scale: the relationship between units on the map and actual distance on the ground
• Written Scale: one inch equals one mile
• Linear Scale: |---------|---------|----------|
• or Graphic Scale
• Representative Fraction: 1:63,360
Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
Latitude & Distance
• Earth’s Circumference 24,840 miles
• 24,840 divided by 360 degrees of a circle
• One degree equals 69 miles
• One degree can be divided into 60 parts or minutes
• 69 miles divided by 60 equals 1.15 miles
• Therefore one minute equals 1.15 miles
• One minute is a nautical mile (1.15 miles)
Latitude & Distance
• One minute can be further divided into 60 seconds
• One minute or 1.15 miles divided by 60 equals 102 feet
• Therefore one second equals 102 feet
• WHAT IS THE DISTANCE SHOWN ON A 15 MINUTE MAP?
Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
Magnetic North
• The earth holds a mass of liquid, fluid mass of iron around the solid inner core
• This generates a powerful magnetic field within the earth that is generated into outer space

True North = Geographic North

or North Pole

Magnetic North = where

the compass points to

76N 102 W

Declination - the difference

between magnetic and

geographic north

17 E

Terms
• Isogons - lines connecting points of equal magnetic variation away from the geographic north
• Agonic Line - points along a line where there is no magnet variation or declination from the geographic north
Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
Township & RangePublic Land Survey System
• A rectangular grid system adjusted to the geographic grid
• East west lines are surveyed and coincide with parallels of latitude
• prominent parallel is known as the base line
• Vertical divisions are called ranges
• prominent meridians are called principal meridians
Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
Contour Maps
• Maps showing lines that indicate locations of equal elevations
Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing
Remote SensingMechanical collection remotely
• Photographic Remote Sensing
• camera - visible light energy
• infrared - film sensitive to the red end of the light spectrum
• (crop and plant diseases)
Remote SensingMechanical collection remotely
• Non-Photographic Remote Sensing
• radar - radio detection and ranging
• energy transmitted & return signal becomes the basis for the image produced
• penetrates darkness
• terrain mapping
• thermal infrared
• records heat radiation emitted by clouds, water and land
Remote SensingMechanical collection remotely
• Non-Photographic Remote Sensing (cont)
• multispectral scanning
• sonar - sound navigation and ranging
• undersea topography
GEOGRAPHY
• Location
• Maps & Globes
• Remote Sensing
Chapter 2 Concepts
• Key properties of maps
• Great Circles
• Map Projections
• Scale
• Latitude & Distance
• Longitude & Time
• Magnetic North
• Township & Range ( Survey System)
• Contour Maps
• Remote Sensing

Chapter 2

C.J. Cox