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Applied Informatics. Course 04 Information Storage Concepts. assist. eng. Jánó Rajmond , PhD rajmond.jano@ael.utcluj.ro. Introduction. In the real world information is present in analog form Must be digitized in order to be stored. Analog signal. Digitized signal. Data Representation.

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Course 04 information storage concepts

Course 04Information Storage Concepts

assist. eng. Jánó Rajmond, PhD

rajmond.jano@ael.utcluj.ro


Introduction
Introduction

  • In the real world information is present in analog form

  • Must be digitized in order to be stored

Analog signal

Digitized signal


Data representation
Data Representation

  • logical value (true/false)

  • numerical values

    • integers

      • unsigned – natural numbers

      • signed – whole numbers

    • fractional

  • alphanumeric – text

  • multimedia

    • audio

    • video

      • static images

      • sequences of frames (video)

  • signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers


Data representation1
Data Representation

  • logical value (true/false)

  • numerical values

    • integers

      • unsigned – natural numbers

      • signed – whole numbers

    • fractional

  • alphanumeric – text

  • multimedia

    • audio

    • video

      • static images

      • sequences of frames (video)

  • signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers


Numeral systems
Numeral systems

  • A numeral system is defined by

    • the base of the system: b

    • symbols used: 0, 1, 2, … (b-1)

    • representation: Xb = xn…x2x1x0.x-1x-2…xm

    • calculation of the value:

      X= xn.bn+...+x2.b2+x1.b1+x0.b0 +x-1.b-1 + x-2.b-2 + ...+ xm.b-m


Numeral systems1
Numeral systems

Numeral systems used in IT:

  • binary

    b = 2, s = [0, 1]

  • decimal

    b = 10, s = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

  • hexadecimal

    b = 16, s = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F]


Decimal to binary conversion
Decimal to Binary Conversion

  • Integer part

    • divide successively with the base (b) and retain the modulo of the division until 0 is reached

    • read the moduli in inverse order for final result

35(10) = 100011(2)


Decimal to binary conversion1
Decimal to Binary Conversion

  • Fractional part

    • multiply successively the factional part with the base (b) and retain the integer part

    • read the retained integers in the obtained order

0.35(10) = 0.010110…(2)

What is 35.35(10) in binary?

100011.010110


Decimal to binary conversion2
Decimal to Binary Conversion

Convert to binary the following:

  • 3.14(10)

  • 10.10(10)

  • 23.45(10)

11.00100(2)

1010.00011(2)

10111.01110(2)


Binary to decimal conversion
Binary to Decimal Conversion

MSB

LSB

  • X(10) = xn.2n+...+x2.22+x1.21+x0.20 +x-1.2-1 + x-2.2-2 + x-3.2-3 +...

X(10) = 1.25+1.24+0.23+1.22+1.21+0.20+0.2-1+1.2-2+0.2-3+1.2-4+0.2-5+0.2-6

= 32 + 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0 + 0 +0.25+ 0+0.0625+ 0+ 0

= 54.3125


Binary to decimal conversion1
Binary to Decimal Conversion

Convert to decimal the following values

  • 1010(2)

  • 1101.0101(2)

10(10)

13.3125(10)


Hexadecimal system
Hexadecimal System

  • used to shorten the binary information

1 byte = 8 bits

1 nibble = 4 bits

1 nibble = 4 bits


Hexadecimal system1
Hexadecimal System

1 nibble = 4 bits


Binary to hexadecimal conversion
Binary to Hexadecimal Conversion

D

6

11010110(2) = D6(16)

D6(16) = D6h = 0xD6

Binary Coded Decimal (BCD)


Hexadecimal to binary conversion
Hexadecimal to Binary Conversion

  • To opposite operation to binary to hexa conversion

  • Needs the exact same steps reversed

5 A

0101

1010

0x5A = 01011010b = 90


Exercise
Exercise

A microcontroller is connected via 8 digital lines to two BCD coded seven segment displays.

  • What information should the microcontroller transmit to the displays in order to show: 45, 7A, bC?

  • What information will the displays show of they receive: 1000 1111, 0011 1001?

  • What decimal values correspond to the above hexadecimal values?


Exercise1
Exercise

0100 0101

0111 1010

1011 1100


Exercise2
Exercise

1000 1111

0011 1001



Exercise4
Exercise

What is the highest number that can be represented on 8 bits?

1111 1111b = 0xFF = 255


Data representation2
Data Representation

  • logical value (true/false)

  • numerical values

    • integers

      • unsigned – natural numbers

      • signed – whole numbers

    • fractional

  • alphanumeric – text

  • multimedia

    • audio

    • video

      • static images

      • sequences of frames (video)

  • signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers


Data representation3
Data Representation

  • logical value (true/false)

  • numerical values

    • integers

      • unsigned – natural numbers

      • signed – whole numbers

    • fractional

  • alphanumeric – text

  • multimedia

    • audio

    • video

      • static images

      • sequences of frames (video)

  • signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers


Alphanumeric codes
Alphanumeric Codes

  • used to code alphanumeric characters and simple graphics that can be stored at the size of a single character

  • widest used standard is the ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) standard (1 byte – max. 255 characters)

  • the Unicode standard extends ASCII by adding an extra byte (2 bytes – max. 65536 characters)



Exercise5
Exercise

The following message is stored in a computer’s RAM memory, coded in hexa ASCII. Decode the message!


Exercise6
Exercise

Code the following message using the ASCII standard!


Data representation4
Data Representation

  • logical value (true/false)

  • numerical values

    • integers

      • unsigned – natural numbers

      • signed – whole numbers

    • fractional

  • alphanumeric – text

  • multimedia

    • audio

    • video

      • static images

      • sequences of frames (video)

  • signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers


Data representation5
Data Representation

  • logical value (true/false)

  • numerical values

    • integers

      • unsigned – natural numbers

      • signed – whole numbers

    • fractional

  • alphanumeric – text

  • multimedia

    • audio

    • video

      • static images

      • sequences of frames (video)

  • signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers


Multimedia
Multimedia

  • combination of text, audio, images, animations, video and other forms of interactive content

  • it usually needs special decoding processes which are aware of the coding methods used

specialized software

specialized hardware

CODEC


Signals
Signals

  • acquired via data acquisition systems


Courses
Courses

Available online at:

http://www.ael.utcluj.ro/

Information for Students -> Courses -> Applied Informatics