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Energy and the Environment. Matter Quality. Matter quality is a measure of how useful a matter resource is, based in its availability and concentration. High quality matter is organized, concentrated, and usually found near the earth’s crust.

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matter quality
Matter Quality
  • Matter quality is a measure of how useful a matter resource is, based in its availability and concentration.
  • High quality matter is organized, concentrated, and usually found near the earth’s crust.
  • Low quality is disorganized, dilute, and has little potential for use as a matter resource.
high quality low quality
High quality & Low quality

LOW QUALITY

HIGH QUALITY

energy
Energy
  • Energy is the capacity to do work and transfer heat.
  • Energy comes in many forms: light, heat, and electricity.
  • Kinetic energy is the energy that matter has because of its mass and its speed or velocity.
kinetic energy
Kinetic energy.
  • Kinetic energy is the energy that matter has because of its mass and its speed or velocity.
  • It is energy in action or motion.
  • Wind, flowing streams, falling rocks, electricity, moving car - all have kinetic energy.
potential energy
Potential energy
  • Potential energy is stored energy that is potential available for use.
  • Potential energy can be charged to kinetic energy.
the law of conservation of matter and energy
The “Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy”
  • In any nuclear change, the total amount of matter and energy involved remains the same.
  • E = mc2
    • The energy created by the release of the strong nuclear forces for 1 kilogram of matter will produce enough energy to elevated the temperature of all the water used in the Los Angeles basin in one day by 10,000oC
first law of thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
  • In all physical and chemical changes
  • Energy is neither created nor destroyed
  • But it may be converted from one form to another
second law of thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • When energy is changed from one form to another
  • Some of the useful energy is always degraded to lower-quality, more dispersed, less useful energy
  • Also known as Law of Entropy
high waste societies
High Waste Societies
  • People continue to use and waste more and more energy and matter resources at an increasing rate
  • At some point, high-waste societies will become
  • UNSUSTAINABLE!
goals of matter recycling societies
Goals of Matter Recycling Societies

To allow economic growth to continue without depleting matter resources or producing excess pollution

matter recycling societies
Advantages

Saves Energy

Buys Time

Disadvantages

Requires high-quality energy which cannot be recycled

Adds waste heat

No infinite supply of affordable high-quality energy available

Limit to number of times a material can be recycled

Matter Recycling Societies
low waste societies
Low Waste Societies
  • Works with nature to reduce throughput
    • Based on energy flow and matter recycling
low waste societies function
Low Waste Societies Function
  • Reuse/recycle most nonrenewable matter resources
  • Use potentially renewable resources no faster than they are replenished
  • Use matter and energy resources efficiently
low waste societies function1
Low Waste Societies Function
  • Reduce unnecessary consumption
  • Emphasize pollution prevention and waste reduction
  • Control population growth
ecology and life
Ecology and Life
  • Ecology- study of relationships between organisms and their environment
    • Ecology examines how organisms interact with their nonliving (abiotic) environment such as sunlight, temperature, moisture, and vital nutrients
    • Biotic interaction among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the ecosphere
solar energy
Solar Energy
  • 72% of solar energy warms the lands
  • 0.023% of solar energy is captured by green plants and bacteria
  • Powers the cycling of matter and weather system
  • Distributes heat and fresh water
ecosphere separation
Ecosphere Separation
  • The Ecosphere and it’s ecosystem can be separated into two parts
    • Abiotic- nonliving, components
      • Ex: air, water, solar energy
      • Physical and chemical factors that influence living organisms
    • Biotic- living, components
      • Ex: plants and animals
range of tolerance
Range of Tolerance
  • Variations in it’s physical and chemical environment
    • Differences in genetic makeup, health, and age.
    • Ex: trout has to live in colder water than bass
limiting factor
Limiting Factor
  • More important than others in regulating population growth
    • Ex: water light, and soil
    • Lacking water in the desert can limit the growth of plants
limiting factor principle
Limiting Factor Principle
  • too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit growth of population, even if all the other factors are at optimum (favorable) range of tolerance.
    • Ex: If a farmer plants corn in phosphorus-poor soil, even if water, nitrogen are in a optimum levels, corn will stop growing, after it uses up available phosphorus.
dissolved oxygen content
Dissolved Oxygen Content
  • Amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a given volume of water at a particular temperature and pressure.
    • Limiting factor of aquatic ecosystem
salinity
Salinity
  • amount of salt dissolved in given volume of water
living organisms in ecosystem
Living Organisms in Ecosystem

Producers or autotrophs- makes their own food from compound obtained from environment.

  • Ex: plant gets energy or food from sun
living organisms in ecosystem1
Living Organisms in Ecosystem

Photosynthesis- ability of producer to convert sunlight, abiotic nutrients to sugars and other complex organic compounds

  • Chlorophyll- traps solar energy and converts into chemical energy
photosysnthesis
Photosysnthesis
  • Producer transmit 1-5% of absorbed energy into chemical energy, which is stored in complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid in plant tissue
chemosynthesis
Chemosynthesis-
  • Bacteria can convert simple compounds from their environment into more complex nutrient compound without sunlight
    • Ex: becomes consumed by tubeworms, clams, crabs
    • Bacteria can survive in great amount of heat
consumers or heterotrophs
Consumers or Heterotrophs
  • Obtain energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains
consumers
Consumers
  • Herbivores (plant-eaters) or primary consumers
  • Feed directly on producers
    • Deer, goats, rabbits

http://www.holidays.net/easter/bunny1.htm

consumers1
Consumers
  • Carnivores (meat eater) or secondary consumers
  • Feed only on primary consumer
    • Lion, Tiger
consumers2
Consumers
  • Tertiary (higher-level) consumer
  • Feed only on other carnivores
    • Wolf
consumers3
Consumers
  • Omnivores- consumers that eat both plants and animals
    • Ex: pigs, humans, bears
consumers4
Consumers
  • Scavengers- feed on dead organisms
    • Vultures, flies, crows, shark
consumers5
Consumers
  • Detritivores- live off detritus
    • Detritus parts of dead organisms and wastes of living organisms.
  • Detritus feeders- extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter plant debris, and animal dung.
consumers6
Consumers
  • Decomposers - Fungi and bacteria break down and recycle organic materials from organisms’ wastes and from dead organisms
    • Food sources for worms and insects
    • Biodegradable - can be broken down by decomposers
respiration
Respiration
  • Aerobic Respiration
    • Uses oxygen to convert organic nutrients back into carbon dioxide and water
    • Glucose + oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + energy
  • Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation
    • Breakdown of glucose in absence of oxygen
food chain
Food Chain
  • Food Chain-Series of organisms in which each eats or decomposes the preceding one
    • Decomposers complete the cycle of matter by breaking down organic waste, dead animal. Plant litter and garbage.
    • Whether dead or alive organisms are potential (standard) sources of food for other organisms.
second law of energy
Second Law of Energy
  • Organisms need high quality chemical energy to move, grow and reproduce, and this energy is converted into low-quality heat that flows into environment
    • Trophic levels or feeding levels- Producer is a first trophic level, primary consumer is second trophic level, secondary consumer is third.
    • Decomposers process detritus from all trophic levels.
slide40
Food Web
  • Complex network of interconnected food chains
  • Food web and chains
    • One-way flow of energy
    • Cycling of nutrients through ecosystem
food webs
Food Webs
  • Grazing Food Webs
    • Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores
    • Then through an array of carnivores
    • Eventually to decomposers

(100,000 Units of Energy)

food webs1
Food Webs
  • Grazing Food Webs
    • Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores
    • Then through an array of carnivores
    • Eventually to decomposers

(1,000 Units of Energy)

food webs2
Food Webs
  • Grazing Food Webs
    • Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores
    • Then through an array of carnivores
    • Eventually to decomposers

(100 Units of Energy)

food webs3
Food Webs
  • Grazing Food Webs
    • Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores
    • Then through an array of carnivores
    • Eventually to decomposers

(10 Units of Energy)

food webs4
Food Webs
  • Grazing Food Webs
    • Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores
    • Then through an array of carnivores
    • Eventually to decomposers

(1 Units of Energy)

food webs5
Food Webs
  • Detrital Food Webs
    • Organic waste material or detritus is the major food source
    • Energy flows mainly from producers (plants) to decomposers and detritivores.
pyramid of energy flow
Pyramid of Energy Flow
  • More steps or trophic levels in food chain or web, greater loss of usable energy as energy flows through trophic levels
  • More trophic levels the Chains or Webs have more energy is consumed after each one. That’s why food chains and webs rarely have more than 4 steps
pyramid of energy flow1
Pyramid of Energy Flow
  • Loss of usable energy as energy flows through trophic levels of food chains and webs
  • Rarely have more than 4 steps
biomass
Biomass
  • Dry weight of all organic matter contained in organisms.
    • Biomass is measured in dry weight
      • Water is not source of energy or nutrient
    • Biomass of first trophic levels is dry mass of all producers
    • Useable energy transferred as biomass varies from 5%-20% (10% standard)
pyramid of biomass
Pyramid of Biomass

Storage of biomass at various trophic levels of ecosystem

pyramid of numbers
Pyramid of Numbers

Number of organisms at each trophic level

gross primary productivity gpp
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)

Rate in which producers convert solar energy into chemical energy (biomass) in a given amount of time

net primary productivity npp
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
  • Rate in which energy for use by consumers is stored in new biomass of plants
    • Measured in kilocalories per square meter per year or grams in biomass
    • NPP is the limit determining the planet’s carrying capacity for all species.
    • 59% of NPP occurs in land / 41% occurs in ocean
ecological efficiency
Ecological Efficiency
  • Percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to another.
    • 10% ecological efficiency
      • 1,000,000 units of energy from sun
      • 10,000 units available for green plants (photosynthesis)
      • 1000 units for herbivores
      • 100 units for primary carnivores
      • 10 units for secondary carnivores
ecosystem importance
Ecosystem Importance
  • Ecosystem services are the natural services or earth capital that support life on the earth
  • Essential to the quality of human life and to the functioning of the world’s economies
ecosystem importance1
Ecosystem Importance
  • Ecosystem services include:
    • Controlling and moderating climate
    • Providing and renewing air, water, soil
    • Recycling vital nutrients through chemical cycling
    • Providing renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and nonrenewable minerals
    • Furnishing people with food, fiber, medicines, timber, and paper
ecosystem importance2
Ecosystem Importance
  • Ecosystem services include
    • Pollinating crops and other plant species
    • Absorbing, diluting, and detoxifying many pollutants and toxic chemicals
    • Helping control populations of pests and disease organisms
    • Slowing erosion and preventing flooding
    • Providing biodiversity of genes and species