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Unit 6 Review . 30 Scantron Questions Vocabulary Matching True or False Multiple Choice. What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid What is the function of DNA? - Stores genetic (hereditary) information - Controls cell functions 3. Who id’d DNA structure? Watson & Crick in 1953

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unit 6 review

Unit 6 Review

30 Scantron Questions

Vocabulary Matching

True or False

Multiple Choice

slide2

What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • What is the function of DNA?

- Stores genetic (hereditary) information

- Controls cell functions

3. Who id’d DNA structure? Watson & Crick in 1953

4. Three parts of nucleotide?

  • Phosphate, Deosyribose (sugar), Nitrogen base
  • Nitrogen base is different for each nucleotide (different shapes)

5. Pyrimidines: Single ring shape, Thymine and Cytosine

6. Purine: Double ring shape, Adenine and Guanine

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7. Complementary Base Pairs

- The two nitrogen bases that bond together

- Purine always bonds with a pyrimidine

- Adenine pairs with Thymine, Guanine pairs with Cytosine

8. What is the structure of DNA?

- Structure - Double helix, two stands of nucleotides connected

- Backbone - sugar and phosphate

- Rungs (sticks out into center of molecule) - nitrogen-base

    • The order of bases is the genetic code, order codes for a specific gene(protein)

9. Parts of the Cell Theory

  • All living organisms are made up of one or more cells
  • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms
  • All cells come from the division of pre-existing cells
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10. Cell Division – process where a cell splits (divides) into two cells

11. DNA Replication

  • Helicase (enzyme) breaks apart bonds between base pairs. This separates the left and right strands of the DNA molecule
  • DNA polymerase (enzyme) adds complementary base pairs to each separated strand.
  • Makes two new molecules of DNA

12. Can enzymes make mistakes – YES!

  • Mutation – change in the order of nucleotides in a molecule of DNA
  • Most common mutations:
    • Substitution – wrong nucleotide added
    • Addition – extra nucleotide(s) added
    • Deletion – nucleotide(s) removed
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14. Prokaryotic Cell Division:

- Binary Fission (DNA copied, Cell grows, Cytokinesis)

15. Eukaryotic Cell Division:

- Mitosis or Meiosis then Cytokinesis

16. Main parts of the cell cycle:

- Interphase (G1, S, G2), Division (M phase & Cytokinesis)

17. Interphase:

- G1 (time gap 1)- cell grows & performs daily cellular activities

  • S Phase (synthesis) - DNA replication, all DNA is copied (identical DNA copies (chromatids) are held together at a centromere
  • G2 (time gap 2) - cell grows, gets ready to divide, duplicates organelles
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18. DNA transform into a chromosome? How does this happen?

  • Prophae
  • DNA coils around proteins (histones) during Prophase, this structure is then called a chromosome
  • Chromosomes (in X shape) are actually two identical strands of DNA (sister chromatids) held together by a centromere

19. when does the nucleus disappear? Prophase

Reappear? Telophase

20. How many times does the cell divide in mitosis? Once

  • How many cells are formed? Two Diploids
  • How many chromosomes (human cells)? 46 chromosomes
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21. What happens during prophase?

  • DNA coils up into a chromosome (sister chromatids are attached by centromere)
  • Nucleus and nucleolus disappears
  • Centrosomes appear and begin to form spindle fibers

22. What are spindle fibers? Microtubules (proteins)

Where do they form? Around centrosomes

23. What happens during metaphase?

  • Chromosomes (sister chromatids) line up in the middle of the cell
  • Spindle fibers elongate and attach to the centromere of each chromosome/chromatid
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24. What happens during anaphase?

  • Spindle fibers shorten and pull on the centromere
  • Centromere breaks and the chromosome’s chromatids are separated
  • Chromatids are pulled to opposite ends of the cell

25. What happens during telophase?

  • Nucleus reforms around each grouping of chromatids (2 nuclei form)
  • Chromosome/chromatids unwind back into DNA
  • Cell gets ready to split in the middle

26. What is cytokinesis? How is it different in plants & animals?

  • Definition – division of the cytoplasm
  • Animals – cell membrane splits/pinches down the middle
  • Plants – after the cell membrane splits/pinches down the middle, the plant cell would then form cell plate in the center of the cells
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27. How many times does the cell divide in meiosis?

  • Twice, Forms Four Cells
  • Each cell has 23 chromosomes, Cells known as Haploid/Gamete/Reproductive Cell

28. What happens in meiosis?

  • After completing Interphase (G1, S, G2), the cell would divide once (Meiosis I). The two cells would then each divide again (Meiosis II). This produces 4 haploid cells (reproductive cells)

29. How is spermatogenesis different from oogenesis?

  • Spermatogenesis- formation of sperm, cytoplasm divides equally within the two divisions, produces four equal sized cells
  • Oogenesis- formation of one egg and three polar bodies, cytoplasm does not divide equally
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Interphase

Back to Interphase

Prophase

Cytokinesis

Telophase

Metaphase

Anaphase