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Chapter 14. The Bureaucracy. Introduction. A. administrative agencies that run the “day-to-day” operations of government B. from the French – “bureau” (meaning a desk of a government worker) and Greek – “- ocracy ” (meaning a form of government) and came into general use about 100 years ago

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introduction
Introduction
  • A. administrative agencies that run the “day-to-day” operations of government
  • B. from the French – “bureau” (meaning a desk of a government worker) and Greek – “-ocracy” (meaning a form of government) and came into general use about 100 years ago
  • C. definition: a large, complex organization of appointed, not elected, officials.
characteristics
Characteristics
  • A. reflect hierarchical authority
  • B. job specialization
  • C. rule and regulations are cornerstones of bureaucracy
functions
Functions
  • A. recognizable division of labor where skilled workers have a specialized function so that productivity is increased
  • B. allocation of functions where each task is assigned and defined
  • C. allocation of responsibilities where each task is understood by the worker and cannot be changed without supervisor’s approval
functions contin
Functions, contin…
  • D. direct and indirect supervision, including line authority and staff authority
  • E. workers make their careers synonymous with the organization because the bureaucracy provides benefits
functions contin1
Functions contin…
  • F. there is control over the full time employment of the worker so s/he can be kept on task or held responsible
  • G. major functions are implementation and regulation of policy
the weberian model of bureaucracy
The Weberian Model of Bureaucracy
  • A. hierarchical authority structure: power flows from the top down and responsibility from the bottom up
  • B. task specialization: labor is divided so that “experts” efficiently perform specific jobs
weberian model contin
Weberian model, contin…
  • C. extensive rules: rules are needed to keep authority and responsibility lines consistent, and similar rules are applied to similar situations
  • D. merit principle: jobs and promotions are granted on the basis of demonstrated abilities rather than by patronage (granting jobs to friends and political allies)
  • E. impersonality: clients and supervisees are treated impartially and equally
formal model of bureaucratic administration
Formal Model of Bureaucratic Administration
  • A. Unity of command (everyone has a superior to whom they report)
  • B. Chain of command (line of authority from top to bottom)
  • C. Line and staff (staff advises the executive but gives no commands, whereas the line has operating duties)
  • D. Span of control (hierarchy)
  • E. Decentralization (delegation of responsibilities
history of the american bureaucracy
History of the American Bureaucracy
  • A. The Constitution makes little mention of the bureaucracy other than to say the President is empowered to appoint various officials
  • B. Bureaucracy was created in 1789 when Congress created the State Department to assist newly appointed Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson; consisted of the political and social elite
history contin
History, contin…
  • C. The Spoils System
    • 1. used by President Andrew Jackson in 1829
    • 2. rewarded party loyalists with key federal jobs
    • 3. encouraged participation of middle and lower classes
d the pendleton act 1881
D. The Pendleton Act (1881)
  • 1. passed by Congress after President James A. Garfield was assassinated by a disappointed office seeker
  • 2. it set up a limited merit system for appointing officials
pendleton conin
Pendleton, conin…
  • 3. established Civil Service Commission – supervised a testing program to evaluate job candidates
  • 4. 1978 – Civil Service Commission split into 2 new agencies
    • a. The Office of Personnel Management – administers civil service laws, regulations, rules and the written exam for competitive service
    • b. The Merit System Protection Board – protects integrity of the merit system & the rights of federal employees
who are the bureaucrats
. Who are the bureaucrats?
  • A. work in the 15 cabinet departments & 50+ federal agencies (including 2000 bureaus, offices, services, and other governmental subdivisions)
  • B. largest employers are the Dept. of Defense (33%), Dept. of Veterans Affairs, and the U.S. Postal Service (26%)
who are bureaucrats contin
Who are bureaucrats, contin…
  • C. the executive branch employs over 3 million civilians and nearly 2 million military personnel
  • D. Make-up of the bureaucracy (2000 stats)
    • 1. approximately 57% male, 43% female
    • 2. 72% white, 28% minority
    • 3. 11% work in WDC area, 89% work in other parts of the US
    • 4. average age is 42 years
    • 5. most positions would be classified as “white collar” jobs (secretaries, clerks, lawyers, inspectors, engineers)
    • 6. nearly 20,000 civilians work in US territories; 100,000 civilians work in foreign nations
reform
Reform
  • A. National Performance Review (1993) – VP Al Gore’s plan to re-invent government
    • 1. bureaucracy too centralized, too rule- bound, too little concerned with making programs work (red tape)
    • 2. 800 recommendations: close offices, reduce programs, eliminate federal support payments, money for creative innovation, reduce time required to fire incompetent employees