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Educational Theorists. And Their Theories. Child Development Theory. Explains how children develop: Morally, socially, cognitively, physically, emotionally And provides ways to apply this theory to practice. Erikson – 8 Stages of Man.

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Educational Theorists

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    1. Educational Theorists And Their Theories

    2. Child Development Theory • Explains how children develop: • Morally, socially, cognitively, physically, emotionally • And provides ways to apply this theory to practice

    3. Erikson – 8 Stages of Man Individuals pass through different crisis at different ages. InfantTrust vs Mistrust ToddlerAutonomy vs Shame and Doubt PreschoolerInitiative vs Guilt School-Age ChildIndustry vs Inferiority AdolescentIdentity vs Role Confusion Young AdultIntimacy vs Isolation Middle-Age AdultGenerativityvs Stagnation Older AdultIntegrity vs Despair Dealing with each crisis in a positive way results in normal development. Parents & Caregivers must be sensitive to each child’s needs at each stage.

    4. Freud, Sigmund Personality develops through a series of stages. Emotional experiences in childhood profoundly effect adulthood.

    5. Kohlberg, Lawrence

    6. Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs Humans naturally strive to satisfy needs. There are 5 levels of needs. Each must be satisfied before moving on to the next.

    7. Piaget, Jean Piaget’s developmental stages of a child: 0-2 years sensorimotor – motor development 3 -7 years pre-operation – intuitive 4-11 years concrete operational – logical, no abstractions 12-15 years formal operations – abstract thinking Children should be given learning tasks suitable for their age of thinking.

    8. Piaget – Genetic Epistemology

    9. Skinner – Learned Conditioning (Behaviorism) Learning results in changes in behavior. • If an action repeatedly brings a positive result, it will be repeated. • If an action repeatedly brings a negative result, it will stop. • Rewards & punishments may be used to influence behavior.

    10. Montessori – Maria Montessori Children learn by using their senses. They learn best when pursuing their own interests. Children need to touch and manipulate.

    11. Gesell, Arnold Children master various skills in order; Gesell determined the typical order.

    12. Bandura, Albert Children learn by modeling. Environment shapes behavior AND behavior affects environment. Parents & Caregivers must provide good examples.

    13. Coles, Robert Parents and Caregivers are role models for moral development. Children learn by example.

    14. Vygotsky - ZPD Biological development and cultural experience influence a child’s ability to think and learn. Social contact is essential for intellectual development.