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Steps to increase resilience of agriculture sector to current and future climate variability in Indonesia Rizaldi Boer Bogor Agricultural University Indonesia E-mail: rboer@fmipa.ipb.ac.id r or rizaldiboer@yahoo.com. Transportation. Agriculture. Economic Loss El-Nino 82/83 (Billion USD).

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Steps to increase resilience of agriculture sector to current and future climate variability in IndonesiaRizaldi BoerBogor Agricultural UniversityIndonesiaE-mail: rboer@fmipa.ipb.ac.idr or rizaldiboer@yahoo.com

slide2

Transportation

Agriculture

Economic Loss

El-Nino 82/83 (Billion USD)

Forestry

Total loss 97/98

375 Million US$

  • Indonesia is vulnerable country to climate change. At present the occurrence of extreme climate events have caused serious impact in many sectors
slide3
As an agrarian country where this sector as one of the most vulnerable sector to the ECE, Indonesian government has paid serious attention to this sector, how this sector could adapt or cope with to such events
  • Many program has been implemented, however, most of the programs are more curative than preventive actions. New programs and large amount of funding was normally released after the devastating impact happened. Good adaptive capacity has not been developed yet as the magnitude of loss due to such events tended to increase
slide4

Crash irrigation program, prilled urea, price of rice increased 11%, extensification of upland rice

El-Nino

El-Nino

Introduction of direct seeded, 1 million peat land, new regulation

price of rice increase, new var. release, IPM

El-Nino

New var. release, extensification on plantation land, IPT and agric. mechanization

Import (Million Ton)

Rice Production (Million Ton)

Subsidy for pesticide stop

WS delayed, no subsidy (pressure from IMF, economic crisis)

Banned of 57 pesticide

Increasing loss

Policy response to Drought in Indonesia

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Increasing loss

NOTE:Historical policy responses to drought in India. Note: each represents death of one million people, each represents 50 million people affected. If water management response were introduced right after the 1979 drought, the impact of 1987 drought may not as severe as what really happened. Adopted from Subbiah (2005)

Policy response FAILED to anticipate the future climate risks

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“Planned adaptation to future climate will be based on current individual, community and institutional behaviour that, in part, have been developed as a response to current climate” (Jones et al. 2004)
  • We need to develop planning horizon
    • How far into the future a risk assessment should be projected?
    • For how long lifetime of decision-making associated with a particular activity last?
    • When new policy should be introduced to mitigate the possible impact of coming ECE or climate change?
slide7

Sustainable system and prosperous communities

Good climate forecasting system

Good incentive system

Adaptation actions

Mitigation actions

NGOs

Farmers and other end users

Transfer of technologies through variety of means

Programs, policies, & regulations

Inputs and Feed back

Inputs and Feed back

Inputs and Feed back

Research Agencies,

Universities

National and local Governments

Transfer of knowledge & technology information through science and policy forum

APPROACH: Engagement of Stakeholders

Communicating climate knowledge & climate information applications to increase adaptive capacity and community participations in current and future climate variability

slide8

How we do it?

A SMALL STEP: INCREASING ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF FARMERS TO EXTREME CLIMATE EVENTS THROUGH FIELD SCHOOL PROGRAM: Indramayu Case

Subsistence farmers are the most severely affected by ECE

number of household based on welfare status
Number of Household based on Welfare Status

The increase in number of

Pra-KS (below poverty line) in 2003 was primarily due to devastating impact of drought (long dry season) occurred in 2002-2003

slide10

CFS Development Process and Implementation

Research Communities and local governments

  • Function:
  • To translate scientific language to

field language

  • To train PL2 in technology and

method (see and listen)

  • Provide inputs to PL2 in designing

detail program for project operational

Training

Engaging policy makers

Field Facilitator I (PL I) at District/Sub-district Level

Training

Feedback

Field Facilitator II (PL II) at Sub-district or village level or farmer group level

  • Function:
  • To translate field language into

farmers language

  • To disseminate information and

technology to farmers

  • To train farmers based on learning

by doing approach

  • To facilitate and motivate farmers to

adopt the technologies

Engaging intermediaries

CFS

Farmer group and

farmers’ family

Engaging communities

use of climate information
Use of Climate Information

Farm management system

Agriculture Institutional system

Partnership system

  • Climate Information can be used for:
  • Convincing farmers’ partners for collaboration by minimizing climate risk
  • Assisting government in setting up local regulations for addressing climate variability (e.g. rice stock management under a given climate forecast, loan arrangement for farmer, etc.)
  • Assisting government to set up budget policy to address climate related problems, etc.
  • Climate Information is needed for:
  • Developing agriculture Zoning
  • Setting up crop management strategy (determining planting time, selection of cropping system following climate forecast) and other mitigation programs
  • Assessing market conditions, etc.
  • Climate Information is needed for:
  • Setting up market strategies and land allocation under a given forecast
  • Increasing awareness of farmers to the needs for collaboration among farmers and with other stakeholders in managing climate variability
  • Designing better strategy and coordination between govern-ment agencies in responding to climate forecast etc.

Increasing knowledge of end users small groups-community-institutions

Need for government regulations increasing