slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
2006 S ummer A cademy For T eachers PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
2006 S ummer A cademy For T eachers

play fullscreen
1 / 76

2006 S ummer A cademy For T eachers

161 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

2006 S ummer A cademy For T eachers

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. 2006Summer Academy For Teachers Virginia Department of Education "two billion years of planetary scale bio-geo-chemical evolution." Lynn S. Fichter • Department of Geology/Environmental Science • E-mail: fichtels@jmu.edu • James Madison University • http://csmres.jmu.edu/geollab/Fichter/Fichter/Fichterls.html • July, 2006 • http://www.jmu.edu/geology/evolutionarysystems/Academy2006.shtml

  2. James Madison University Center for School Leadership Summer 2006Content-Teaching Academy For Teachers Virginia Department of Education www.jmu.edu/geology/ evolutionarysystems/ Academy2006.shtml

  3. 2006Summer Academy For Teachers Virginia Department of Education 1. The Setup "two billion years of planetary scale bio-geo-chemical evolution." If the solar system is 4.6 billion years old, which two billion years? 2. The Principles of our investigation Presentation Follow the Energy: • physical, chemical, geological, biological But, several other principles as well. 3. The Scene Creation of the Earth environment Comparison with other parts of solar system Socratic Discussion 4. The Evolution "two billion years of planetary scale bio-geo-chemical evolution."

  4. The Setup Artists Reconstruction of How the Earth and Moon Got Together

  5. 1. The Setup Just How Long is Earth History ? And When Did the Important Things Happen ? Billions of Years 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Historical Geology Astronomy Archaean Proterozoic Phanero Hadean Pre-Cambrian = 9/10 1/10 Oldest Rocks Grenville (oldest rocks in Eastern North America; Blue Ridge Mountains) Arguably, the most important things in Earth history and the history of life occurred during the first 2 billion years. Hence . . . "two billion years of planetary scale bio-geo-chemical evolution."

  6. 2. The Principles of Our Investigation ~4.5 Billion years ago (Ga) The Moon as seen from the Earth

  7. First Principle Our mantra (a formula or a word with spiritual significance ) Follow The Energy Why? Because life and Earth are open, dissipative systems, and they evolve through the dissipation of energy and information.

  8. The Earth as a Complex Evolutionary System 1. The Energy Sources

  9. The Earth as a Complex Evolutionary System 1. The Energy Sources 2. The Systems

  10. Essentially we are talking about is the Working out of the Laws of Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Biology With a Twist

  11. The Earth as a Complex Evolutionary System 1. The Energy Sources 3. Evolutionary Changes 2. The Systems

  12. Evolution by Fractionation Fractionation - also called differentiation - is the separation of components of a whole into fractions each of which has a different composition from the whole.

  13. Life increases in: • Abundance • Complexity • Diversity Life as an Elaborating Attractor Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth More Energy “Life” Simple Elements Energy More Energy Natural Selection How can something be naturally selected for before it exists?

  14. Evolutionary Changes and the Great Lie of Classical Science Systems that Evolve are Not Equilibrium Systems

  15. Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749-1827) The Pendulum as a Classical Model In Physics The pendulum is an important system because throughout history it has been the emblem of classical mechanics and the epitome of clockwork regularity. In the 19th century the great French mathematician Laplace said: If we were to know with precision the positions and speeds of all the particles in the universe then we could predict the future with certainty. Well, maybe. But, can a pendulum evolve?

  16. Classical Systems – Chemical Reactions A + B C + D Reaction Diffusion - Complex Chemical Systems The BZ (Belousov-Zhabotinsky) Reaction Applet 1 Applet 3 Applet 2 Ilya

  17. Reaction Diffusion - Complex Chemical Systems Jack Cohen Ian Stewart H2 + O2 H2O

  18. Complex Chemical Systems Reaction-Diffusion Systems Moves fast Reaction Moving Waves Moves slow Inhibition http://delfin.klte.hu/~gasparv/menuh.html Activator-Inhibitor Systems Inhibitor Stationary Waves/Spots Activator http://www-users.med.cornell.edu/~dchristi/antispiral/antispiral.html

  19. Green/Purple Sulfur Bacteria Anaerobic Photosynthesis http://www.humboldt.edu/~pls13/BacThome.html A photogenic purple sulfur bacterial mat (Thiopedia) One electron transport chain returns the electron back to the Reaction Center (cyclical pathway) generating ATP along the way. The second electron transport chain generates ATP but at the end of that chain the electron is transferred to an NADP organic molecule which carries it away.

  20. Activator-Inhibitor Systems in Biology From patterns in animal hides, butterfly wings, and shells, to the distribution of organisms in a ecosystems, activator-inhibitor systems provide explanatory mechanisms.

  21. Evolutionary Changes and the Great Lie of Classical Science Positive-Negative Feedback Systems Systems that Evolve are Not Equilibrium Systems, or even oscillating systems like pendulums

  22. Population Growth and the Gypsy Moth

  23. Population Growth and the Gypsy Moth rate of growth Xnext = r X this years population Next years population

  24. Population Growth and the Gypsy Moth rate of growth Xnext = r X this years population Next years population

  25. Population Growth and the Gypsy Moth Positive feedback Negative feedback Xnext = r X (1-X) The logistic function or logistic curve models the S-curve of growth of some set P. The initial stage of growth is approximately exponential; then, as competition arises, the growth slows, and at maturity, growth stops.

  26. X = .02 and r = 2.7 X next = rX (1-X) X next = (2.7) (.02) (1-.02 = .98) X next = .0529 Modeling an Evolutionary System Xnext and Deterministic Chaos Iteration X Value 0 0.0200000 1 0.0529200 2 0.1353226 3 0.3159280 4 0.5835173 5 0.6561671 6 0.6091519 7 0.6428318 8 0.6199175 9 0.6361734 10 0.6249333 11 0.6328575 12 0.6273420 13 0.6312168 14 0.6285118 15 0.6304087 16 0.6290826 17 0.6300117 18 0.6293618 44 0.6296296 45 0.6296296 46 0.6296296 47 0.6296296 48 0.6296296 49 0.6296296 50 0.6296296 X next = rX (1-X)

  27. Modeling an Evolutionary System Xnext and Deterministic Chaos X next = rX (1-X) A time-series diagram Run Xnext

  28. r = 2.7

  29. r = 2.9

  30. r = 3.0

  31. r = 3.1

  32. r = 3.3

  33. r = 3.4

  34. r = 3.5

  35. r = 3.6

  36. r = 3.7

  37. r = 3.8

  38. r = 3.9

  39. r = 4.0

  40. r = 4.1

  41. 4. System Linkages

  42. System Linkages All the components of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere are all interlinked and regulated by positive and negative feedback processes

  43. Take a guess. How much carbon ( in % ) exists in each of these systems?

  44. The Eternal Metaphors

  45. Stephen Jay Gould The Eternal Metaphors "The essential questions of a discipline are usually specified by the first competent thinkers to enter it. The intense professional activity of later centuries can often be identified as so many variations on a set of themes. The same old questions are endlessly debated." 1941-2002 Does the history of life have definite directions? Does time have an arrow specified by some vectorial property of the organic world (increasing complexity of structure, or numbers of species, e.g.) No question received more discussion during the . . . early to mid-nineteenth century. DIRECTIONAL Vs. STEADY STATE Is there evolutionary progress toward some goal?

  46. Stephen Jay Gould The Eternal Metaphors "The essential questions of a discipline are usually specified by the first competent thinkers to enter it. The intense professional activity of later centuries can often be identified as so many variations on a set of themes. The same old questions are endlessly debated." 1941-2002 What is the TEMPO of organic change? Does it proceed gradually in a continuous and stately fashion, or is it episodic? GRADUAL Vs. PUNCTUATIONAL (Catastrophic) (Episodic)

  47. Stephen Jay Gould The Eternal Metaphors "The essential questions of a discipline are usually specified by the first competent thinkers to enter it. The intense professional activity of later centuries can often be identified as so many variations on a set of themes. The same old questions are endlessly debated." 1941-2002 What is the MOTOR of organic change? More specifically, how are life and the earth related? Does the external environment and its alterations set the course of change, or does change arise from some independent and internal dynamic within organisms themselves? INTERNAL Vs. ENVIRONMENTAL

  48. 1- Biogeochemical Carbon Cycling - 1 How are life and the earth related? Does the external environment and its alterations set the course of change, or does change arise from some independent and internal dynamic within organisms themselves? • Atmosphere • Biosphere • Hydrosphere • Lithosphere • Human http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/160/carboncycle.gif

  49. 2 - Biogeochemical Carbon Cycling - 2 How are life and the earth related? Does the external environment and its alterations set the course of change, or does change arise from some independent and internal dynamic within organisms themselves? • Atmosphere • Biosphere • Hydrosphere • Lithosphere • Human http://www.safeclimate.net/business/understanding/carboncycle.php