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Vaccine - Preventable Diseases. 1. Healthy People 2020 goal: Increase immunization rates and reduce preventable infectious diseases. Why We immunize. 2. Health promotion: prevent a disease if it is preventable. Morbidity vs Mortality Protect self Protect others Economics.

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vaccine preventable diseases
Vaccine - Preventable Diseases

1

Healthy People 2020 goal:

  • Increase immunization rates and reduce preventable infectious diseases.
why we immunize
Why We immunize

2

  • Health promotion: prevent a disease if it is preventable.
    • Morbidity vs Mortality
  • Protect self
  • Protect others
  • Economics
immunizations contraindications
Immunizations: Contraindications

3

  • Anaphylactic reaction to previous vaccine
  • IPV: anaphylactic reaction to neomycin or streptomycin
  • MMR & Varicella
    • Immunocompromised
    • allergy gelatin, neomycin
    • Pregnancy
    • active Tb
barriers to immunization
Barriers to Immunization

4

  • Complexity of the health care system
  • Expense
  • Parental misconceptions
  • Personal beliefs
  • Inaccurate record-keeping
  • Reluctance of health care workers to give > 2 vaccines at a time
  • Lack of public awareness
complications of common infectious diseases viral
Complications of Common Infectious Diseases (viral)

5

  • Measles
  • Rubella, Fifth disease (parvovirus B19)
  • Roseola Infantum (HHV-6)
  • Mumps
  • Varicella
  • Pneumonia, otitis media, encephalitis
  • transmission to pregnant women
  • febrile seizures
  • aseptic meningitis, orchitis, deafness
  • secondary infection skin lesions; CNS, Reyes syndrome
complications of common infectious diseases bacterial
Complications of Common Infectious Diseases (bacterial)

6

  • Pertussis
  • Diptheria
  • Hep B
  • Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae)
  • Pneumonia
  • Airway obstruction, myocarditis, neuritis
  • Liver cirrhosis, CA
  • Meningitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, septic arthritis, sepsis
immunization schedule
Immunization Schedule

7

  • 2, 4, 6, (15) months
    • Hep B, DTaP, Hib, IPV, PCV
  • MMR, Varicella: after 12 mo**
  • NEW! Tdap 7th-12th grade
  • If miss one, do not need to start over
  • www.cdc.gov/nip
infectious diseases
Infectious Diseases

9

  • Primary prevention as intervention
    • Many diseases are vaccine-preventable
  • Secondary Intervention: treat symptoms
    • Rash
    • Fever
    • Itching
    • Secondary infection-try to prevent
  • Tertiary Intervention
nursing care
Nursing Care

10

  • Risk for [spread of] infection
  • Ineffective Health Maintenance
  • Risk for ineffective thermoregulation
  • Fatigue r/t fever, discomfort
  • Social isolation r/t confinement
impetigo interventions
Impetigo - Interventions

12

  • Soak crusts in warm water
  • Gently cleans w/antibacterial soap
  • Do not pick at lesions
  • Child & caregiver: handwashing
  • Fingernails short & clean
  • Topical antibiotic ointment
  • Communicable up to 48 hours after antibiotic treatment begun.
cellulitis
Cellulitis

13

  • Inflammation of skin, SQ tissues
  • Local area is red, hot, swollen & painful
  • Regional lymph nodes often involved
  • Systemic effects: fever, chills, confusion, malaise
cellulitis risk for spread of infection
Cellulitis: risk for spread of infection

14

  • Sepsis
  • Septic arthritis
  • Meningitis
  • Brain abscess
  • Blindness
interventions cellulitis
Interventions: Cellulitis

15

  • Antibiotics
    • if hospitalized, IV
  • Entire course
  • Monitor temp
  • Warm compresses
  • Elevate affected limb
  • Bed rest - acute phase
skin disorders other causes
Skin Disorders: other causes

16

  • Viral & Fungal
  • Contact
  • insect & animal contact
common nursing diagnoses r t integumentary alterations
Common Nursing Diagnosesr/t integumentary alterations

18

  • Pain, acute r/t
  • Pruritis r/t reaction to irritants secondary to…
  • Impaired skin integrity r/t inflammation & scratching of lesions
  • Risk for secondary infection r/t altered skin integrity; scratching
  • Knowledge deficit regarding cause, treatment, spread of infection r/t lack of information.
nursing diagnoses cont
Nursing Diagnoses: cont.

19

  • Risk for fluid volume deficit or nutritional deficit if lesions on mouth, tongue, etc.
  • Body image disturbance r/t altered appearance
  • Fatigue r/t fever
  • Social isolation
hyperthermia vs fever
Hyperthermia vs Fever

20

  • Fever: results from an insult or disease that resets the body’s “set point”.
  • Hyperthermia: high body temperature
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