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McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Chapter Two: Culture and Socialization. Culture and Socialization. What is Culture? Development of Culture Around the World Cultural Variation Language and Culture Norms and Values Global Cultural War Culture and the Dominant Ideology Culture and Socialization

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Culture and socialization
Culture and Socialization

  • What is Culture?

  • Development of Culture Around the World

  • Cultural Variation

  • Language and Culture

  • Norms and Values

  • Global Cultural War

  • Culture and the Dominant Ideology

  • Culture and Socialization

  • The Self and Socialization

  • Agents of Socialization

  • Socialization throughout the Life Course

Culture and socialization1
Culture and Socialization

  • Socialization: process through which children learn basic attitudes, values, and behaviors

  • Personality: individual characteristics, attitudes, needs, and behaviors that set one person apart from another

What is culture
What is Culture?

  • Culture: totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior

  • Culture includes ideas, values, customs, and artifacts of groupsof people

What is culture1
What is Culture?

  • Society: large number of people who live in same territory, who are relatively independent of people outside that area, and who participate in a common culture

  • Common culture simplifies day-to-day interactions

  • Adorno: worldwide culture industry standardized the goods and services demanded by consumers

Cultural universals
Cultural Universals

  • All societies develop common practices and beliefs, known as cultural universals

  • Adaptations to meet essential human needs

    • Innovation

    • Diffusion


  • Tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others

    • Have complicated U.S. efforts at democratic reform of the Iraqi government

      • In Iraqi culture loyalty to the family and the extended clan comes before patriotism and the common good

Cultural relativism
Cultural Relativism

  • Evaluation of a people’s behavior from the perspective of their own culture

    • Employs a kind of value neutrality in scientific study

    • Requires a serious and unbiased effort to evaluate norms, values, and customs in light of their distinctive culture

Development of culture around the world
Development of Culture around the World

  • Innovation

    • Process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture

  • Discovery

    • Making known or sharing the existence of some aspect of reality

  • Invention

    • Results when existing cultural items are combined into a form that did not exist before

Development of culture around the world1
Development of Culture around the World

  • Globalization: worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas

Development of culture around the world2
Development of Culture around the World

  • Diffusion: process by which cultural item spreads from group to group

    • Can occur through

      • Exploration

      • Military conquest

      • Missionary work

      • Mass media

      • Tourism

      • Internet

Development of culture around the world3
Development of Culture around the World

  • McDonaldization: process through which principles of fast-food industry dominate certain sectors of society

  • Technology: “Cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires” (Nolan and Lenski)

Development of culture around the world4
Development of Culture around the World

  • Materialculture: physical or technological aspects of daily lives

  • Nonmaterialculture: ways of using material objects as well as:

  • Customs

  • Beliefs

  • Philosophies

  • Governments

  • Patterns of communication

  • Food items

  • Houses

  • Factories

  • Raw materials

Development of culture around the world5
Development of Culture around the World

  • CultureLag: period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture struggling to adapt to new material conditions

Cultural variation
Cultural Variation

  • Each culture considers its own ways of handling basic societal tasks as “natural”

  • Cultures adapt to meet specific sets of circumstances

Cultural variation1
Cultural Variation

  • Subcultures

    • Segments of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs, rules, and traditions that differ from the pattern of the larger society

    • Argot

      • Specialized language that is developed that allows insiders to understand words with special meanings

Cultural variation2
Cultural Variation

  • Counterculture

    • When a subculture conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture

      • Thrive among the young

      • Hippies, political radicals

Cultural variation3
Cultural Variation

  • Culture Shock

    • Feeling of disorientation, uncertainty, being out of place, or fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture

Language and culture
Language and Culture

  • Language: abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture

  • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and gestures and expressions of non verbal communication

Norms and values
Norms and Values

  • Norms

    • Established standards of behavior maintained by a society

      • Formalnorms: generally written; specify strict punishments

      • Informalnorms: generally understood but not precisely recorded

      • Mores: norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society

      • Folkways: norms governing everyday behavior

Norms and values1
Norms and Values

  • Sanctions

    • Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm

  • The entire fabric of norms and sanctions in a culture reflects that culture’s values and priorities

Norms and values2
Norms and Values

  • Collective conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper—or bad, undesirable, and improper

Influence people’s behavior

Criteria for evaluating actions of others

Values may change

Global culture war
Global Culture War U.S.

  • Culture war: polarization of society over controversial elements of culture

National: In 1990s, referred to political debates over abortion, religious expression, gun control, and sexual orientation

Global: By 2003, in the wake of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, foreign opinion of the United States has become quite negative

Culture and dominant ideology
Culture and Dominant Ideology U.S.

  • Dominant ideology: set of cultural beliefs and practices that help maintain powerful interests, including:

  • Social interests

  • Economic interests

  • Political interests

Culture and socialization2
Culture and Socialization U.S.

  • Nature versus Nurture

    • Today’s social scientists acknowledge the interaction of the two

  • Sociobiology: systematic study of the biological bases of human social behavior

    • Sociobiologists apply Darwin’s principle of natural selection to the study of social behavior

Social environment the impact of isolation
Social Environment: U.S.The Impact of Isolation

  • Interaction of heredity and environment shape human development

  • Cases of Isabelle and Genie

    • Importance of earliest socialization experiences for children

  • Researchers increasingly emphasize importance of early socialization experiences who grow up in more normal environments

The self and socialization
The Self and Socialization U.S.

  • Self: distinct identity that sets us apart from others

The self is not a static phenomenon

Continues to develop and change

Cooley looking glass self
Cooley: Looking-Glass Self U.S.

  • View of ourselves comes from contemplation of personal qualities and impressions of how others perceive us

Looking-glass self: the self is product of social interactions with other people

Mead stages of the self
Mead: Stages of the Self U.S.

  • PreparatoryStage: children imitate people around them

  • Symbols: gestures, objects, and language that form basis of human communication

Mead stages of the self1
Mead: Stages of the Self U.S.

  • PlayStage: become more aware of social relationships and role taking occurs

  • Role Taking: process of mentally assuming perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint

Mead stages of the self2
Mead: Stages of the Self U.S.

  • GameStage: children of about 8 or 9 consider several actual tasks and relationships simultaneously

Generalized others: attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account

Mead theory of the self
Mead: Theory of the Self U.S.

  • Self begins as privileged, central position in a person’s world

  • As person matures, the self changes and begins to reflect greater concern about reactions of others

Significant others: individuals most important in the development of the self

Table 2 3 mead s stages of the self
Table 2-3: Mead’s U.S.Stages of the Self

Goffman presentation of the self
Goffman: Presentation U.S.of the Self

  • Impressionmanagement: individual learns to slant presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences

  • Also known as dramaturgical approach

Psychological approaches to the self
Psychological Approaches U.S. to the Self

  • Freud

  • Stressed role of inborn drives

  • Natural impulsive instincts in constant conflict with societal constraints

  • Personality influenced by others (especially one’s parents)

  • Self has components that work in opposition to each other

Art to come

Psychological approaches to the self1
Psychological Approaches the Self

  • Piaget

  • Emphasized stages that humans progress through as the self develops

  • Cognitive theory of development identified 4 stages in development of children’s thought processes

Social interaction key to development

Agents of socialization
Agents of Socialization U.S.

  • Family

    • Gender role

      • Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males or females

  • School

  • Peer Group

    • Harassment as well as support

Agents of socialization1
Agents of Socialization U.S.

  • Mass Media and Technology

    • Online social media networks

  • Workplace

  • Religion and the State

    • Impacting life by reinstituting rites of passage one observed in agricultural communities and early industrial societies

Figure 2 4 the new normal internet at home
Figure 2-4: The New Normal: U.S.Internet at Home

Socialization throughout the life course
Socialization throughout U.S.the Life Course

  • Rites of passage: means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person’s status

  • Life course approach: looking closely at social factors that influence people throughout their lives

Anticipatory socialization and resocialization
Anticipatory Socialization U.S.and Resocialization

  • Anticipatorysocialization: person “rehearses” future occupations and social relationships

  • Resocialization: discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as transition in one’s life

Anticipatory socialization and resocialization1
Anticipatory Socialization U.S.and Resocialization

  • Totalinstitution: regulates all aspects of a person’s life under a single authority

Degradationceremony: ritual where individual becomes secondary and rather invisible in overbearing social environment