AP World History POD #16 – New Imperialism in Africa - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AP World History POD #16 – New Imperialism in Africa
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AP World History POD #16 – New Imperialism in Africa

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  1. AP World HistoryPOD #16 – New Imperialism in Africa New Imperialism

  2. Class Discussion Questions McKay – “Western Imperialism”, pp. 868-877 McKay – “Response to Western Imperialism”, pp. 877-882 Bulliet – “The New Imperialism: Motives and Methods”, pp.740-744

  3. Historical Context “Europe has a long tradition of imperialism reaching back to the twelfth century. During the first two-thirds of the nineteenth century the European powers continued to increase their influence overseas. The New Imperialism was characterized by an explosion of territorial conquests even more rapid than the Spanish conquests of the sixteenth century. Between 1869 and 1914, in a land grab of unprecedented speed, Europeans seized territories in Africa, Central Asia, and both Europeans and Americans took territories in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Approximately 10 million people fell under the rule of Europe and the United States in this period. The New Imperialism was more than a land grab. The imperial powers used economic and technological means to reorganize dependent regions and bring them into the world economy as suppliers of food stuffs and raw materials and as consumers of industrial products. In Africa and other parts of the world , this was done by conquest and colonial administration. The Latin American republics, though remaining politically independent, became economically dependencies of the United States and Europe.” (Bulliet, p. 740)

  4. What was New Imperialism? • from 1880 to 1914 the Europeans not only sent large numbers of migrants, money, and manufactured goods around the world but also rushed to create a larger political empire • this led to tensions between the European nations competing for territory and power • new imperialism was focused on Asia and Africa and was heavily influenced by race

  5. What factors influenced New Imperialism? • conservative governments used imperialism as a means to enhance nationalism and patriotic unity at home • new source of industrial resources • new market for manufactured goods • superior military technology made this process easier • desire to increase economic strength- create a large empire where high protective tariffs and monopolies could be exploited • colonies were seen as crucial to national security, military power , and international prestige- it was believed that colonies were essential for great nations • Social Darwinism- need to civilize the savage • Guns, Quinine, Steam power, and Telegraph • Special interest groups such as private companies desired to make a large profit in these areas

  6. Political Motives • The Great Powers of Europe were determined to demonstrate their national power and prestige through territorial conquest around the world • Naval Empires (Alfred T. Mahan, US Navy) – argued that great powers needed military installations around the world

  7. Economic Motives • Europe confronted an economic crisis between the mid-1870s and the mid-1880s leading to demands for new nationalistic economic policies and actions that would protect business and industry from foreign competition by securing access to raw materials and markets in the tropics • The Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America created a gigantic demand for minerals (copper for electrical wiring, tin for canning, chrome and magnesium for the steel industry, coal for steam engines, as well as gold and diamonds for general wealth) • There was an increasing demand for cash crops throughout the world market (cotton, rubber, sugar, coffee, tea, tobacco) • Declining business opportunities at home prompted entrepreneurs and investors to look for profits in Asia, Africa and Latin America

  8. What agreements were made at the Berlin Conference? • at this conference the Europeans agreed that claims to African territory had to rest in “effective occupation” in order to be recognized by the other states • this caused the Europeans to push from all sides into the interior of Africa • it also guaranteed that through this process no one European nation would be able to claim the entire continent

  9. Cultural Motives • Religious – convert non-believers (heathens) to Christianity • Determined to abolish slavery • Provide these regions with the benefits of modern science and technology by introducing Western education, medicine, hygiene and monogamous marriage

  10. What is White Man’s Burden? • Europeans should and could “civilize” the more primitive non-white people • Europeans believed that it was their duty or “burden” to bring to these people the benefits of modern economics, cities, advanced medicine an higher standards of living so that in time they might be ready for self-government

  11. White Settlers • “In the early years of the New Imperialism, colonial administrations consisted of a governor and his staff, a few foreign troops to keep order, and a small number of tax collectors and magistrates. Nowhere could colonialism operate without the cooperation of indigenous elites, because no colony was wealthy enough to pay the salaries of more than a handful of European officials. In most cases the colonial governors exercised power through traditional rulers willing to cooperate. Colonial governments also educated a few local youths for “modern” jobs as clerks, nurses, policemen, custom inspectors, and the like. Thus colonialism relied on two rival indigenous elites.” (Bulliet, pp. 743-744)