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The Liberal Era. Chapter 28 & 29. The Kennedy Presidency 1960-1963. Personified self-confident liberal Believed activist state could improve life at home and confront the communist challenged abroad From a wealthy, political family Served in WWII, Navy Served in Congress, Senate 1958

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The Liberal Era


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the liberal era

The Liberal Era

Chapter 28 & 29

the kennedy presidency 1960 1963
The Kennedy Presidency 1960-1963
  • Personified self-confident liberal
  • Believed activist state could improve life at home and confront the communist challenged abroad
  • From a wealthy, political family
  • Served in WWII, Navy
  • Served in Congress, Senate 1958
  • Believed in “The New Frontier”
1960 election
1960 Election
  • Televised debates
    • Downfall of Nixon
      • Pale and haggard vs. the tanned and dynamic JFK
  • Election
    • Closest since 1884
    • Only separated by 120,000 votes
  • Inauguration
    • “New Frontier”
    • Surrounded himself with intellectuals
  • JFK
    • Benefitted from recession
    • VP Southern Protestant Lyndon B. Johnson
    • Religion an issue
  • Nixon
    • Better known
    • More experience
    • Middle road Republican
    • Eisenhower’s VP
kennedy s domestic record
Kennedy’s Domestic Record
  • Little significant social legislation
    • New liberalism held back by Congress
  • Economic growth key to liberal agenda
  • Accomplishments
    • Increased nuclear stockpile
    • Increased defense budget
    • Established Green Berets
    • “race to moon”
    • Federal aid to education
    • Medical care to elderly
    • Urban renewal
    • Clean Air Act 1963
  • Civil Rights
    • Lot of rhetoric = little action
    • Focus on foreign affairs, then economy
    • Straddled race issue
      • Balanced unprecedented # of African-Americans to federal jobs with appointment of racist judges
      • Kennedy “forced” to enforce desegregation of buses only after “Freedom Ride” of 1961
      • “forced” again to deal with issue after Birmingham embarrassment June 1963
  • Women
    • Established Presidential Commission of status of Women
kennedy s foreign policy
Kennedy’s Foreign Policy
  • Cold War Activism
      • Launched a major buildup with military arsenal
      • Foreign policy top priority
      • Congressional for liberal programs of economic assistance for third world
    • 1961 Peace Corps
      • Missionaries of Democracy
    • Laos
      • Created by Geneva agreement 1954
      • Civil war b/w US forces and Laos rebels
      • Compromise in July 1962
        • Restored neutralist government
    • Cuba
      • Spring 1961: Bay of Pigs
        • 1st major foreign policy
        • 1500 exiles stormed Cuba
        • DISASTER
        • JFK takes blame
  • Brink of Cold War
    • Oct. 1962
    • Aerial photographs of missile bases in Cuba
    • Kennedy’s Response
      • Remove missiles
      • “quarantine” Cuba
        • Naval blockade
    • Tense movements
      • 180 US ships in Caribbean
      • “I think the other fellow just blinked”
        • Missiles out if US doesn’t invade Cuba
      • Darkest Hour
        • Russia changes and adds Turkey
        • US spy plane shot down over Cuba
      • Compromise
        • October 27, 1962
        • Original offer accepted
        • “Hot-line” established
  • Signaled “détente”
    • New phase in Cold War
the thousand day presidency
The Thousand Day Presidency
  • JFK Assassination
    • Nov. 22, 1963
    • Dallas, TX
  • Legacy
    • New Frontier, Liberalism
      • “held back” by Congress
      • Barely existed for environment, women, or slowing business
    • Mixed International Record
      • Signed 1st nuclear-test-ban treaty, yet initiated build up
      • Compromised on Laos, but deepened Vietnam involvement
      • Increased power of executive branch
    • Publicly
      • Fired imagination of Americans
      • Gave liberals new hope
      • Challenged young
      • Stimulated social and political activism
  • Consequences
    • Assassination shattered illusions
    • Increasing # of Americans to lose confidence in government
liberalism ascendant 1963 1968
Liberalism Ascendant, 1963-1968
  • Lyndon B. Johnson
    • Substantial political assets
      • Served in Washington since 1932
      • Lots of political experience
    • Determined to prove himself
  • LBJ’s Liberalism
    • Tax Cut
      • $10 billion tax reduction
      • Surge in capital investment and personal consumption
      • Shrank the budget deficit
    • Civil Rights
      • Memorial to JFK
  • “The Other America”
    • Economic Opportunity Act 1964
      • War on Poverty
        • Job Corps
          • Domestic peace corps
        • VISTA
          • Volunteers in Service to America
        • Project Head Start
        • Community Action Program
    • Vision of a “Great Society”
      • Horrified conservatives
      • Will lead into Election of 1964
1964 election
1964 Election
  • Republicans
    • Barry Goldwater
      • Product of 20th century West
      • Outsider of Washington
      • Anticommunist
      • Proponent of individual freedom
    • Platform
      • Opposed big government
      • Deficit spending
      • Racial liberalism
      • Social welfare
      • Opposed liberalism
      • Wanted to use Nucs with Cuba and Vietnam
    • Support
      • Southern segregationists
      • Blue-collar workers in Northern cities
  • LBJ
    • VP: Hubert Humphrey
    • Depicted Goldwater as an extremist
  • Election
    • 43 million votes to 27 million
    • Landslide victory
  • Consequences
    • Goldwater launches modern Republican conservative movement
      • GOP became conservative, Southern and Western party
      • Mobilized support for future leaders like Ronald Reagan
      • New “Southern Strategy”
triumphant liberalism
Triumphant Liberalism
  • 89th Congress
    • “Congress of fulfillment”
    • Enlarged war on poverty
    • Milestone Civil Rights
    • Enacted Medicare and Medicaid
    • Funds for public education, housing, redevelopment of Appalachia, and revitalizing inner-city neighborhoods
    • Created new departments
      • Transportation
      • Housing
      • Endowment for Humanities
    • New immigration law
      • Abolishes Nat’l Origin Act 1924
    • Environment
      • 1964 Nat’l Wilderness Preservation Act
    • Safety standards
      • Highway Safety Act
  • Results
    • Improved lives of millions
    • Poor down from 22% to 13% by 1969
    • IMR down by 1/3
    • Head start reaches 2 million children
    • African-American poverty down from 40%-20%
    • Critics
      • MLK Jr.
        • “War on Poverty shot down over the battlefields of Vietnam”
        • 22% more spent on War than poverty
      • Election 1956
        • Democrats lost 47 seats in House
        • Sealed Liberalism’s fate
civil rights act 1964
Civil Rights Act 1964
  • Most significant C.R. legislation in US history
  • What it does:
    • Banned racial discrimination and segregation
    • Outlawed bias in federally funded programs
    • Created EEOC
  • What it doesn’t:
    • Address voting rights
      • CORE, SNCC
        • Campaign to register African-Americans
        • “Freedom Summer” 1964
        • Voting Rights Bill passed August 1964
          • Only after George Wallace violence
          • “we shall overcome”
riots and black power
Riots and Black Power
  • Civil rights movement did not revolutionize race relations
    • August 11, 1965
      • Watts, LA
      • 6 days
      • 34 dead, 900 injured
      • 4000 arrested
      • Looting, fire-bombing white shops
    • Summer 1966
      • Riots in Northern ghettoes
      • Response to brutal police
    • Summer 1967
      • 150 racial skirmishes, 40 riots
      • Most intensive and destructive period in US history
    • 1964-1968
      • 200 dead, 7000 injured
      • 40.000 arrested
      • $500 million in damage
  • Rise of new leaders
    • “too little, too late”
    • 1966 “Black Power”
      • Malcolm X
        • “wake up, clean up, and stand up”
        • Be proud of blackness, roots
        • Critical of MLK Jr.
        • “If ballots won’t work, bullets will”
        • Assassinated Feb. 1965
      • Cassius Clay
        • Converted to Islam 1964
        • Muhammad Ali
        • Draft evasion
      • Black Panthers
        • Founded Oakland, Cali 1966
        • Huey Newton, Bobby Seale
        • “strike at night, spare no one”
        • Significant influence
          • Black studies at colleges
          • Community groups
          • Black voters, candidates
          • Encourage black pride
warren court of the 1960 s
Warren Court of the 1960’s
  • Supported and promoted liberal agenda
  • Acted to expand individual rights to a greater extent
  • Johnson appoints 1st African-American justice: Thurgood Marshall
  • Major rulings:
      • Prohibiting bible and prayer in school
      • Limiting local power to censor books and films
      • Overturned state ban on contraceptives
      • One person, one vote
      • Rights of the accused
  • Criticism:
    • Miranda v. Arizona 1966
voices of protest
Voices of Protest
  • Native American Protest
    • 1961
      • 67 tribes created Declaration of Purposes
        • Criticized termination policies
        • Lobbied for inclusion with war on poverty
        • Johnson established National Council on Indian Opportunity 1965
    • 1968
      • “Red Power”
        • Younger movement
      • American Indian Movement
        • Most militant
        • Goal to protect way of life
  • Hispanic-American
    • Fastest-growing minority
      • Impatient
      • Cesar Chavez 1965
        • “La Causa”
    • Chicano/Chicana movement
      • Boycotts to demand bilingual classes, more Latino teachers
      • Spread to other minorities
  • 2nd Feminist Wave
    • Urged 1964 Civil Rights Act to include gender discrimination too
    • 1966 NOW (Nat’l Org. of Women)
      • Betty Freidan, Aileen Hernandez
      • Sought liberal change
      • “Feminine Mystique” 1963
        • Women wanted careers, identity
    • Anti-Vietnam
      • Mary King, Casey Hayden 1965
      • Starts Women’s Liberation Movement
  • Women’s Liberation
    • Groups spread across nation
      • Generated publicity
        • Miss American “sheep” 1968
        • Boston Marathon
        • “The Pill” 1960
      • Worked for
        • Daycare centers, rape crisis, abortion counseling
      • Rejected notion of women as passive
    • August 1970
      • Largest women’s rights movement
escalation of war
Escalation of War
  • 1963
    • Before JFK’s death, authorized overthrow of Diem in S. Vietnam
      • Increased US forces to 16,000
  • Johnson’s decision
    • Torn, widened limited war
    • Ordered air strikes Feb. 1964
    • Authorized escalation
  • Gulf of Tonkin Aug. 1964
    • US “victims” of open aggression on the high seas
    • Condemned attacks, ordered more air strikes
      • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • Operation “Rolling Thunder”
    • 1965
    • Bombing, air war
    • 1965-1968 = 800 tons of bombs dropped a DAY
    • Committed more troops
      • “meat-grinder” strategy
  • Doves vs. Hawks
    • Opposition to war started at colleges March 1965
      • Univ. of Michigan
      • 1966 large-scale protests
        • Intellectuals, clergy joined
        • Bobbie Kennedy, Dr. Benjamin Spock, MLK Jr.
    • War’s toll on the poor
      • College deferments benefitted wealth
    • TV coverage
      • Eroded support
      • Many left undecided though
a time of upheaval
A Time of Upheaval
  • Youth Movement
    • Starts with JFK
    • More than ½ population of 1960’s under 30 years old
    • Conflict between baby boomers and youth
  • A “New” Left
    • Insurgent majority of liberal arts majors
      • Welcomed idealism of civil-rights movement
      • Determined not to be “silent”
      • Port Huron Statement 1962
        • SDS: Students for a Democratic Society
          • Wanted non-violent movement
          • Turn US into a participatory democracy
  • Protest to Resistance
    • Mario Savio
      • Home from Freedom Summer
      • Univ. of Cali-Berkley
        • Banned political activity
        • Started Berkley Free Speech Movement (FSM)
        • Spread across country
        • New demands
          • Smaller classes, more minorities
    • Vietnam influence
      • “Make Love, Not War”
      • SDS, Vietnam Vets. Against the War
      • 40,000 students, 100 campuses
  • College Massacres
    • Kent State- April 30, 1970
    • Jackson State- May 14, 1970
counter culture
Counter-Culture
  • Hippies and Drugs
    • Marijuana
      • 60% of college students tried
      • No real “evidence” against it
    • LSD
      • Timothy Leary, Ken Kesey
    • Films
      • “Hair” 1967
      • “Alice’s Restaurant” 1969
    • Music
      • Jim Morrison “the Doors”
      • Jefferson Airplane
    • Revolt
      • Surplus military clothing
      • Torn jeans, tie-dyed shirts
  • Music Revolution
    • 1960’s College Folk
      • Bob Dylan
    • Beatlemania
    • Woodstock 1969
    • End of the movement
      • NY, San Fran
      • Charles Manson
      • Stones concert at Almont Raceway
      • 1970 Beatles disbanded
  • Sexual Revolution
    • “if it feels good, do it”
    • “the pill” debate
      • 1970 1/3 fetuses aborted
      • Roe v. Wade (1973)
    • Publications
      • Playboy
      • Gore Vidal’s “Myra Breckenridge” 1969
      • Films
        • “Easy Rider”
        • “Midnight Cowboy”
    • Divorce rate increased
      • Cohabitation increased
      • “open marriages”
  • Gay Liberation
    • Public June 1969
      • Raid on a gay bar in NY
      • “gay pride”
      • Supported mainly in cities
      • Change stigmas
        • American Psychiatric Association
        • Not a “mental disorder”
      • 1975 US Civil Service Commission ended ban on employment
1968 politics of upheaval
1968: Politics of Upheaval
  • Tet Offensive in Vietnam
    • Jan 1968
      • Dem. Eugene McCarthy
    • Jan 31, 1968
      • N. Vietnamese attack 100+ villages and US embassy
    • Media Reaction
      • LBJ loss of support
  • Shaken President
    • McCarthy gaining steam
    • Robert Kennedy joins race
      • Supported by working-class ethnic whites, poor, and minorities
    • LBJ not seeking re-election
  • Assassinations and Turmoil
    • April 4, 1968: MLK Jr.
    • June 5, 1968: Robert Kennedy
  • GOP Nominee Richard Nixon
    • Promised to end war honorably
    • Voice of Americans
      • Anti-protests
  • 1968 Democratic Convention
    • Threat of “yippies”
    • “The whole world is watching”
      • Chicago police brutality
  • Conservative resurgence
    • Nixon capitalized on Chicago
      • Only real threat Independent George Wallace
        • Represented the South
    • 1968 Election ends Liberal Era
nixon and world politics
Nixon and World Politics
  • Vietnamization
    • Nixon Doctrine 1969
      • US role “helpful partner” not military protector in 3rd world
    • Vietnam a MESS
      • Morale, drugs, murder
      • My Lai massacre 1968
    • Vietnamization
      • More S. Vietnamese troops
      • 1972 down to 30,000 US troops
    • Kissinger sent to negotiate
  • Nixon’s War
    • Secret B-52 bombings on Cambodia
      • Widened Indochina War
  • America’s longest war ends
    • 1972 “peace at hand”
      • Snag with demands
      • Christmas bombing of Hanoi
    • Paris Accords Jan 1973
      • Ended hostilities
      • Left situation unresolved
    • Results
      • 58,000 dead
      • 300,000 wounded
      • $150 billion
      • Psychological effects
    • “Put Vietnam behind us”
      • US could care less about Indochina
  • Détente
    • 1970 “three-dimensional” game
      • 1972- China
      • 1972- Moscow
        • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
politics
Politics
  • Middle East
    • 6 day war 1967
    • PLO
    • October 1973
      • Egypt/Syria attacked Israel
      • US sends supplies to Israel
      • Results in oil embargo
        • Dramatized US reliance on foreign energy sources
        • Alaska drilling increased
  • Kissinger's Shuttle Diplomacy
    • Middle East
    • Aiding anti-democratic governments and white supremacist regimes against communism
    • Chile 1970
      • US involvement
      • Recognizes dictator 1973
nixon s domestic agenda
Nixon’s Domestic Agenda
  • July 21, 1969
    • “The Eagle has landed”
    • Apollo 11
    • Nation’s hopes restored
  • Accomplishments
    • Wage and price controls
    • Affirmative action policies
    • Vote for 18 year-olds
    • OSHA
    • EPA
      • Despite not having a GOP majority in EITHER house of Congress
  • Critics
    • Government too intrusive
      • Family Assistance Plan 1969
      • Race-conscious employment regulations
  • Economy
    • $25 billion deficit in 1969
      • Inflation at 5%
        • Cut gov’t spending
        • Fed raised interest rates
        • Resulted in recession
    • Different approaches
      • Early 1971- Keynesian approach
      • Mid-1971- “Freeze” approach
      • 1973- voluntary restraints
        • Inflation up 9%, 12% in 1974
        • OPEC
  • Law and Order
    • Used full gov’t resources to restrain militants
    • Huston Plan 1970
      • Against anti-war movement
      • Wire-tapping
      • “The plumbers”
election 1972
Election 1972
  • Southern Strategy
    • Court whites upset with racial equality
      • Opposed extension of Voting Rights Act
      • Hindered Fair Housing Act
      • Slow desegregation
    • Supreme court nominations
      • More conservative
      • Nominated Chief Justice Warren Berger
        • Shift to the right
  • Election
    • Re-election certain
      • Democrats divided
      • Wallace shot May 1972
    • Democratic Nominee
      • George McGovern
    • CREEP
    • Results
      • Nixon Wins
      • Less people vote
  • Watergate
    • Arrest of individuals caught wire-tapping Democratic party center
    • Paid $400,000 to quiet before election
    • “Deep Throat”
      • Bob Woodward/ Carl Bernstein
    • Feb. 1973
      • Senate investigation
      • Firings/resignations
      • televised
  • Disgrace
    • VP Agnew charged with tax evasion Oct. 1973
      • House minority leader Gerald R. Ford becomes VP
    • March ’74
      • Nixon tapes subpoenaed
      • July unedited tapes appear
      • Indicted on 3 articles of Impeachment
      • Aug 9, 1974 1st president to resign
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Public distrust of politicians and disillusionment of government for decades to come