ALISE, January 22-25, 2013http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synergy.html Marie L. Radford • Chair, Department of Library & Information ScienceRutgers University • email@example.com Lynn Silipigni Connaway • Senior Research ScientistOCLC • firstname.lastname@example.org ALISE/Bohdan S. Wynar Research Paper Award
Transcript Analysis Seeking Synchronicity Live Chat Transcripts 2004-2006 (QP1) • Total QuestionPoint & 24/7 = 651,687 • 850 randomly selected • 550 QP & 300 24/7 Cyber Synergy Live Chat & Qwidget Transcripts 2010 (QP2 & QW) • Total QP2 & QW = 296,797 • QP2 221,158 & QW 75,639 • 560 randomly selected • 350 QP2 & 210 QW 2004-2006 (QP1) 2010 (QP2 & QW)
Research Questions – Cyber Synergy • How have the mix & frequency of types of VRS questions changed? • How frequently are ready reference questions asked in VRS? • How has the rate of accuracy of answers to VRS ready reference questions changed? • What differences are there in mix, frequency, & accuracy for live chat compared to IM/QW VRS modes?
Seeking Synchronicity & Cyber Synergy Transcript Analysis Results Types of Questions Types of questions
Types of VR Questions • Subject Search • Ready Reference • Procedural • No Question • Holdings • Research • Inappropriate • Directional • Reader’s Advisory
Subject Search or Specific Search “Almost always takes the form of giving the user a document, for example, a list of citations, a book, or a report” (Arnold & Kaske, 2005). • How was the labeling theory important in deinstitutionalization? • (QW–023) • Where can i find information about ADHD? • (QP2–005) • can you help me find poems by Maya Angelou and criticism on them? (QP1–230)
Ready Reference “These are the typical ready-reference or data queries that require only a single, usually uncomplicated, straightforward answer...Who? What? When? Why? Where?” (Arnold & Kaske, 2005). • who won the world cup game between south africa and france? • (QW–024) • How do i cite a political talk show in MLA format? • (QP2–013) • Who was Bentonville, NC named after? • (QP1–147)
Procedural • Can I get summer long term renewals online? How? (QP1–004) • need access logon info to lexis from scool library website (QP2– 027) • what is the max for checkout on blu ray dvids? (QW–033) “Questions pertaining to the policies or procedures within the library system” (Arnold & Kaske, 2005).
“Questions about specific holdings of a library in print or digital form” (Arnold & Kaske, 2005). Holdings • I was wondering if you have textbooks to rent for an hour or 2? • (QP2–172) • Do you have any books on Paris Hilton? (doing a project on her) • (QP 1–195) • hi there; i was wondering if you guys have Moby Dick in stock? • (QW–014)
“Research questions… involve trial-and-error searching or browsing… [and] are usually identified as coming from an adult specialist who is seeking detailed information to assist in specific work” (Arnold & Kaske, 2005). Research • Looking for information on national traffic survey and incident reports. • (QP2–169) • Hi, I am trying to find out information on how the Learn Direct initiative was started, the criteria that was set and if local government had to be involved in the first stage. (QP 1–155) • Hi I’m looking for studies similar to one I’ve already found. How do I go about this? • (QW–013)
“Questions which are not appropriate for a reference service including personal questions” (Radford, 2005). Inappropriate • How do I have sex? • (QP1–159) • Are • You • Typing • War • and Peace • (QW–020) • WAT DOES it mean when a guy said he like me more as a friend doesnt it mean like a gf? (QP2–153)
Directional • what is the URL for the summer reading program for teens? • (QP2–032) • I heard that you have adapted book kits for ESL speakers. Where can I find these online? • (QW–008) • Where is the 67th street library? Is it on the west or east side? • (QP1–387) “The general information or directional question is of the information booth variety…” (Arnold & Kaske, 2005).
Reader’s Advisory questions are “focused on helping readers find materials they want to read, listen to, or view for pleasure” (Ross, Nilsen, & Radford, 2009). Reader’s Advisory • Hello I am looking for recommendations for the author jonathankellerman. (QP1–218) • Hi, my 7 year old son is looking for a copy of the Hobbit suitable for children, but we can’t seem to find anything in the library catalogue. Can you please offer any advice? Thanks. • (QW– 120) (from Australia) • I was wondering if u would happen to know any good fantasy books… • (QP2 – 050)
n=293 n=243 n=162 n=104 n=77
32% 31% 31% 27% 18% 17% 11% 8% 9% 4%
How has the rate of accuracy of answers to VRS ready reference questions changed? Is the 55% rule in effect? (Hernon & McClure, 1987) Accuracy in VR Ready Reference
Accuracy Transcript Analysis • Subset of ready reference questions • 8/2004 - 10/2006 • n=162 ready reference queries • 6/2010 - 12/2010 • n=168 ready reference queries
Checking for Accuracy • You were interested in the kids’ (up to age 12) summer reading, right? • Teams of coders checked responses • Authoritative websites • Subscription-based databases • Any citations/links provided by the librarian/staff member • Yes • Yes Here is a link to info on it. http://host8.evanced.info/yorklibraries/sr/homepage.asp Hopefully, that page will answer your questions. (QP2-024)
Categories Correct with Citation Correct without Citation Correct without Citation, No Citation Needed Incorrect with Citation Incorrect without Citation Incorrect (without specific information requested) Other
Ready Reference Questions (2004-2006 vs. 2010)Received by Type of Chat Service 40% 39% 36% 28% 21% 20% 12% 2% <1% <1%
Improving Accuracy: 2004-2006 vs. 2010 90% 78% 20% 6% 4% 2%
Ready Reference Accuracy Correct Answers and Citations for 2004-2006 vs. 2010 89% 75% 14% 11% 6% 5%
Ready Reference is Alive! • % of Ready ReferenceQueries • Relatively stable • Slight increase over time (4%) • Accuracy much higher than 55% benchmark • 78% (‘04-’06) to (‘10) 90% • Both ready reference accuracy & percentages for correct w/ citation improved
Explanations for Increase • VRS service providers more facile in chat & IM environment • Providers feel less rushed • Have followed authors’ previous recommendations?
Recommendations to Improve Accuracy • Clarify question • Provide citations • Check for broken links • Make sure all parts of a query are answered • Make sure specific information requested in presented before pushing a general website improve
Future Research Directions Investigate: • Accuracy in other question types & SQA • Data-derived taxonomy of accuracy • SQA accuracy • Level of difficulty (using READ model) • Staffing models • Both FtF & VR desks • Managing multiple chat windows • Lean staffing in tight budgets • More collaboration/crowd-sourcing • Mobile access ask a librarian
References Arnold, J., & Kaske, N. (2002). Chat with a Librarian. Computers in Libraries Annual Conference and Exhibition Usa-, 1-6. Arnold , J., & Kaske, N. K. (2005). Evaluating the quality of a chat service. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 5(2), 177-193. Connaway, L. S., Dickey, T. J., & Radford, M. L. (2011) “If it is too inconvenient I'm not going after it:” Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library & Information Science Research, 33(3), 179-190. Connaway, L. S., Radford, M. L., & OCLC Research. (2011). Seeking synchronicity: Revelations and recommendations for virtual reference. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synchronicity/default.htm Hernon, P., & McClure, C. R. (1987). Unobtrusive testing and library reference services. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing. Janes, J. (2003). What is reference for? Reference Services Review, 31(1), 22-25. Nummien, P., & Vakkari, P. (2009). Question types in public libraries' digital reference service in Finland: Comparing 1999 and 2006. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(6), 1249-1257. Pearce, A., Collard, S., & Whatley, K. (2010). SMS reference: Myths, markers, and modalities. Reference Services Review, 38(2), 250-263. Pew Internet & American Life Project. (2012a). Nearly half of American adults are smartphone owners. Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Smartphone-Update-2012/Findings.aspx
References Pew Internet & American Life Project. (2012b). Teens, smartphones & texting. Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2012/PIP_Teens_Smartphones_and_Texting.pdf Radford, M. L., & Connaway, L. S. 2005–2008. Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating virtual reference services from user, non-user, and librarian perspectives. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Rutgers University, and OCLC http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synchronicity/default.htm Radford, M. L., & Connaway, L. S. (2013). Not dead yet! A longitudinal study of query type and ready reference accuracy in live chat and IM reference. Library & Information Science Research,35(1), 2-13. [Available: http://www.oclc.org/resources/research/publications/library/2012/radford-connaway-lisr.pdf] Radford, M. L., Connaway, L. S., Confer, P., Sabolsci-Boros, S., & Kwon, H. (2011). “Are we getting warmer?” Query clarification in live chat virtual reference. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 50(3), 259-279. Radford, M.L., Connaway,L.S. & Shah, C. (2011-2013). Cyber synergy: Seeking sustainability through collaboration between virtual reference and social Q&A sites. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synergy/default.htm Radford, M. L., & Vine, S. (2011). An exploration of the hybrid service model: Keeping what works. In: Diane Zabel (Ed.), Reference Reborn: Breathing New Life into Public Services Librarianship, pp. 79-89. CO: Libraries Unlimited. Ross, C. S., Nilsen, K., & Radford, M. L. (2009). Conducting the reference interview (2nd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman. Stacy-Bates, K. (2003). E-mail reference responses from academic ARL libraries. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 43(1), 59-70.
Funding & Acknowledgements Cyber Synergy: Seeking Sustainability through Collaboration between Virtual Reference and Social Q&A Sites • $250,000 for 2011-2013 • Funded by IMLS, OCLC, & Rutgers University • Co-PIs Marie Radford (RU), Lynn SilipigniConnaway (OCLC), & Chirag Shah (RU) http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synergy.html • We thank Alyssa Darden, Lisa DeLuca, Kathy Juliano, Stephanie Mikitish, Janet Torsney, & Jacqueline Woolcott for assistance in coding, analysis, & data presentation.
Questions & Discussion • Marie Radford • email@example.com • Lynn Silipigni Connaway • firstname.lastname@example.org