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12.0 Introduction Studies in Haggai PowerPoint Presentation
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12.0 Introduction Studies in Haggai

12.0 Introduction Studies in Haggai

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12.0 Introduction Studies in Haggai

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    1. 12.0 Introduction & Studies in Haggai Studies in the Scroll of the Twelve

    2. 1. Haggai: Introduction "The tenth book in the Masoretic ordering of the Book of the Twelve (or the Minor Prophets). It contains oracles alluding to the harsh socio-economic conditions that dominated the tiny province of Yehud (Judah) during the reign of Darius I. Two factors had influence Judean identity at this time: the Persian mandate to rebuild the temple, and the dyarchic structure of governor and high priest approved by the Persian authorities. The temple still lay in ruins when Haggai began to prophesy on 29 August 520 B.C.E. (Hag 1.1); but enormous progress had been made by the time he concluded his

    3. 1. Haggai: Introduction brief ministry, some three and a half months later, on 18 December 520 (Hag 2.10, 20). The book of Haggai itself provides vivid testimony to the effect of the prophet's words on the people as they began the task of rebuilding the temple (Hag 1.12-13), supplementing the cursory notes provided by Ezra (5.1; 6.14)." [Meyers, Carol and Eric M. Meyers, "Book of Haggai," ABD, III, 20]

    4. 2. Haggai: Historical Background 1. "It is clear from the biblical record that the First Return encountered such political difficulties, and also that it failed to restore the temple. The mission of Sheshbazzar did not succeed, possibly because as the "first" governor, Sheshbazzar did not possess the same power as did Zerubbabel and his successors. The mission could have failed also because it took place so long before there organization of the provinces by Darius. Before Darius's implementation of the satrapal system, sufficient financial support for such an enterprise may have been impossible. A lack of tax revenues in an impoverished Palestine would have greatly altered the effects of Sheshbazzar's visit." [Meyers, Haggai and Zechariah 1-8: The Anchor Bible, xxxiv]

    5. 2. Haggai: Historical Background 2. "Stronger contingents of people returning from Babylonian exile were needed before the rebuilding which Cyrus had made possible could be carried out. These larger groups of home comers probably arrived during the second half of the reign of Cyrus's son Cambyses, no doubt in connection with his Egyptian campaigns (525-522); or they may have come during the transition to Darius's rule in 522-521. They were led by Zerubbabel, who had been appointed governor of Judah (Hag 1.1, 12, 14; 2.2, 21, 23; cf. Ezra 2.2).This offered prophets like Haggai a new chance to spur the people on. Hope for the rebuilding of the temple flickered up once more." [Wolff, Haggai: A Commentary, 15]

    6. 2. Haggai: Historical Background

    7. 2. Haggai: Historical Background 3. "The date formulas in Haggai, unlike comparable material in Kings, Chronicles, or other prophets, are tied to the realm of a foreign power. As such, they indicate the extent to which Judean policies and thinking were geared towards Persia. They also suggest prophetic awareness of the imminent conclusion of the 70 year period of desolation referred to in Jeremiah (Jer 25.11-12; 29.10), Reckoned from the destruction of the First Temple in 587-586, the approaching year 517-516 apparently signaled a new era for Judah. This careful reckoning of dates is unique in prophecy and accentuates Haggai's views regarding Yahweh's

    8. 2. Haggai: Historical Background purposeful control over history. The date formulas, which mirror each other by virtue of the chiastic arrangement of year-day-month language, also constitute another literary device by which the overall unity of Haggai and First Zechariah is established." [Meyers, ABD, III, 21]

    9. 3. Haggai as a Prophet 1. "Actually, very little is known about Haggai. He was a contemporary of Zechariah (Ezra 5:1), and largely through the work of these two prophets the temple was rebuilt (6:14). On the basis of Hag. 2:3 some have supposed that Haggai had seen the former temple, but the verse will not support this interpretation. More likely is the tradition from Epiphanius that he was young man who had returned from Babylon with Sheshbazzar. His name, which may be compared with Lat. Festus or Gk. Hilary, suggest that he was born on one of the Israelite festivals (Heb. hag)." [Bush, LaSor, Hubbard, Old Testament Survey, 482]

    10. 3. Haggai as a Prophet 2. "There is only one person in the Old Testament called Haggai . . . . Haggai was a favorite name in the Old Testament world. We have evidence of this from Hebrew seals, Aramaic sources, and also Akkadian and Egyptian parallels. The reason why the name was so widespread was its meaning: to be born on a feast day (gx;) counted as a good omen. the name echoes the rejoicing over the child's birth: "My feast-day's joy!"." [Wolff, ibid., 16]

    11. 3. Haggai as a Prophet 3. Cult Prophet?: 3.1 "The most energetic champion of the temple party's cause known to us through the surviving literature was Haggai." Haggai's oracles "comprise a powerful propaganda piece for the official restoration program presided over by Zerubbabel and Joshua." [Hanson, The Dawn of Apocalyptic, 173, 176]

    12. 3. Haggai as a Prophet 3.2 The first transmitter of Haggai's sayings once emphasizes specially that he was "the messenger of Yahweh" (1.13), a title that it otherwise applied to a prophet only in Isa 44.26 and 2 Chr 36.15f. This in itself would be reason enough to keep us from seeing him as "cult prophet," even though his zeal for rebuilding of the Jerusalem temple has led to his being viewed in that light. But what speaks against this conclusion is not only his frequent use of the classic messenger-speech formula (1.2, 5, 7, 8; 2.6, 7, 9a, 11) and the divine-oracle formula ("saying of Yahweh," 1.9, 13; 2.8, 9, 14, 17 and three times in 2.4 and 2.23 respectively); he also confronts priestly

    13. 3. Haggai as a Prophet questions almost as if they are something he finds alien (2.11-13). On the other hand, he addresses the high priest with as much self-assurance as he does the governor (1.1, 12, 14; 2.2, 4). His exertions on behalf of the building of the temple are sustained by an ardent future expectation (2.6-9, 21f., 23). Haggai therefore impressed the postexilic community as being a prophet with extraordinary authority. And his confidence, firing his critical energy, led to success (Hag 1.12-14; Ezra 5.1f.; 6.14)." [Wolff, ibid., 17]

    14. 3. Haggai as a Prophet 4. A Priest: ". . . on the grounds that he appealed to the priest to answer a question on one occasion (2:11); that he was vitally interested in rebuilding the temple; and that his name was connected to some of the psalms in the ancient versions (LXX, 87, 145-148; Vul. 111, 145; Pesh. 125, 126; 145-148)." [Smith, ibid., 147]

    15. 4. Message of Haggai 1. Effect of Haggai's Message: "The total effect of these prophecies was to encourage the nation, its governor, its high priest, and the remnant of the people to finish rebuilding the temple. Known in Jewish terminology as 'the Second Temple,' this temple was never replaced by a third. The temple which Herod the Great rebuilt in the days of Jesus was considered to be simply a refurbishing." [Bush, LaSor, Hubbard, Old Testament Survey, 483]

    16. 4. Message of Haggai 2. Temple Rebuilding: ". . . the book of Haggai serves at least four functions: 2.1 It memorializes a major cultural achievement, the rebuilding of the temple. From its perspective, Haggai's words provided the impetus whereby reconstruction was carried on. 2.2 The book highlights the role of Haggai as he assisted the people in dealing with the restoration of the temple compound - in initiating reconstruction, in responding to negative perceptions of the temple, in facilitating the official restoration of the sacrificial cultus.

    17. 4. Message of Haggai 2.3 The book provides the prospect of future weal. Judah is now obeying a prophet's words. Since, according at least to the deuteronomistic history, disobedience of a prophet's words resulted in destruction, obedience to Haggai's words should yield prosperity. 2.4 The temple compound, now in operation, and the cultus, recently reinstated, deserve the support of the people." [Peterson, ibid., 36]

    18. 4. Message of Haggai 3. Dyarchy: "Although Haggai's utterance were for the most part addressed to the whole community of Judeans, many of whom had only recently returned from Babylon (Hag 1.12; 2.2). It is clear that his words were directed mainly toward the two leaders, Zerubbabel, the Davidic governor, and Joshua, the high priest. The province of Yehud no longer had a Davidic king; and Zerubbabel, the governor, was officially in charge of the liaison in all matters requiring Persian attention. Joshua held an office of ecclesiastical authority that had clearly been upgraded in the restoration (see Zech

    19. 4. Message of Haggai 3.11f). The priesthood in the early postexilic period began to assume much of the internal political, economic, and judicial administration that previously had resided with the royal house, although the presence of the Davidic scion Zerubbabel as the governor of Yehud encouraged occasional eschatological outbursts that focused on the future role of the Davidide (Hag 2.21-23; Zech 4.6b-10a). These future-oriented oracles suggest a belief among the

    20. 4. Message of Haggai Judeans that this dyarchic pattern was only temporary. The lineage of Joshua, however, was no less impressive than Zerubbabel's, though from a Persian perspective such an arrangement was permanent except in case of rebellion, when any kind of home rule would be removed. Persia's motives in appointing both a Davidic governor and a legitimate priestly officer thus cannot be divorced from political purposes: establishing a loyal following in Yehud that would guarantee control of the major road was that skirted the Mediterranean and that gave Persia access to the W portion of its far-flung empire." [Meyers, ABD, III, 20]

    21. 5. Haggai: Outline I. Appeal to rebuild the Temple 1:1-15 A. The summons 1:1-11 B. The beginning of work 1:12-15 II. The glory of the temple 2:1-9 III. Promise and Prediction 2:10-19 A. Holiness and uncleanness 2:10-14 B. A Promise for better times 2:15-19 IV. A Messianic oracle about Zerubbabel 2:20-23

    22. 6. Kabod Theology 1. Kabods Definitions: 1.1 Primarily: heaviness or weight. [Ringgren, H. Israelite Religion, 90-91] 1.2 Weighty that distinguishes a person > Honor; power; success; i.e., A heavy Person. [Ringgren, Israelite Religion, 91] 1.3 Yet with reference to YHWH usually associated with Light phenomena [BDB] 1.4 In Ezek, Ka4bo=d signifies the resplendent majesty of the divine presence. [Mettinger, T., The Dethronement of Sabaoth: Studies in the Shem and Kabod Theologies, 97]

    23. 6. Kabod Theology 2. Two types of Usage of Ka4bo=d in Pentateuch (Especially in the so-called P-Material): [Mettinger, ibid., 80ff.] 2.1 Gods Presence in Judgment: Ka4bo=d in conjunction with crises during Israels Wilderness Experience: 2.1.1 Ex 16:7,10 Manna problem > Murmuring 2.1.2 Num 14:10(21, 22) Spy problem > Murmuring 2.1.3 Num 16:19 Korah Problem > Murmuring 2.1.4 Num 17:7(16:42) After Korahs death > Murmuring 2.1.5 Num 20:6 Waters of Meribah > Peoples contention with Moses

    24. 6. Kabod Theology 2.1 Gods Presence in Blessing: Ka4bo=d in conjunction with Sinai and the Cult: 2.1.1 Ex 24:16,17 Kabod settles on Sinai 2.1.2 Ex 29:43 Kabod will sanctify the Tabernacle 2.1.3 Ex 40:34,35 Kabod fills Sanctuary 2.1.4 Lev 9:6, 23 Aarons first sacrifice

    25. 6. Kabod Theology 3. Significant Texts: 1. Exod 33.18-23 2. Exod 29.43 / 40.34, 35 (N.B. 1 Kgs 8.11) 3. Ezek 8-11; 43.1-5 3.1 8:4 At the North Gate 3.2 9:3 From the Cherub (sg) to the threshold to speak with the man in linen. 3.3 10:4 From the Cherub (pl) to the threshold 3.4 10:18 Return to the Cherub (pl) 3.5 10:19 Cherubim move to East Gate 3.6 11:22 Above the Cherubim 3.7 11:23 Leaves Jerusalem and stations itself on the Mount of Olives just east of the city.