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Barriers for Men In Nursing Education and Nursing Practice. David Hudson, MSN, RN. Synopsis of Barriers. Gender Stereotypes Feminist Perspective of Nursing Workplace Relationships Intimacy. Lack of Role Models Perception of Lower Salary Discrimination Communication Differences.

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synopsis of barriers
Synopsis of Barriers
  • Gender
  • Stereotypes
  • Feminist Perspective of Nursing
  • Workplace Relationships
  • Intimacy
  • Lack of Role Models
  • Perception of Lower Salary
  • Discrimination
  • Communication Differences
hodes 2005
Hodes (2005)
  • Stereotyping is top barrier to choosing nursing as a career
  • Nursing viewed as a “female” profession
  • Lack of role models
  • Lack of guidance during high school
hodes cont
Hodes (cont.)
  • Students experienced difficulties with education; minority gender
  • Viewed as “muscle” by female colleagues
  • Communication issues and problems with female colleagues
hodes cont1
Hodes (cont.)
  • Misrepresentation

1-Male nurses are gay

2-Nursing is a female profession

3-Men are not caring

  • Men are dissuaded from becoming nurses
harding 2007
Harding (2007)
  • Persistent stereotype of the gay male nurse
  • Actual meeting of homophobia
  • Protection of heterosexuality by heterosexual male nurses
harding cont
Harding (cont.)
  • Study reported that the majority of nurses (men) identified as heterosexual
  • Public view is that most male nurses are homosexual
o lynn 2007
O’Lynn (2007)
  • Gender itself is a barrier
  • People shape gendered constructions to be congruent with shared gender meanings and these constructions are considered to be normal
  • Feminine paradigm in nursing education
o lynn cont
O’Lynn (cont.)
  • Lack of role models
  • Isolation
  • Gender biased language
  • Differential treatment
  • Different communication styles
  • Issues with touch and caring
james cinelli 2003
James & Cinelli (2003)
  • Men and women communicate differently

-Inconsistent verbal/non-verbal messages

-Personal bias




beamer varner 2008
Beamer & Varner (2008)
  • Speech patterns
  • Men tend to interrupt more frequently
  • Men are more direct in the delivery of the message
evans 1997
Evans (1997)
  • Stereotypical female traits





  • Stereotypical male traits






evans cont
Evans (cont.)
  • Masculine/feminine traits and roles are incompatible
  • Men in “power roles”
  • “so long as men in nursing feel a need to separate them from women, they will continue to designate certain issues to be feminine and will continue to need certain activities for “men only.”
o lynn 20071
O’Lynn (2007)
  • Men in nursing education programs feel uncomfortable with touch and the concept of caring
  • Students feel angry with faculty for not addressing these issues and concerns
duffin 2006
Duffin (2006)
  • Men in nursing feel isolated
  • Feel embarrassed because they are not trained to provide intimate care for female clients
  • Develop strategies to “blot out gender”; focus on the task not the person
burton misener 2007
Burton & Misener (2007)
  • Media portrayal of nurses perpetuates stereotypes
  • Nurses in the media portrayed as female
  • Those portrayed as male have negative stereotype
  • Physician “wanna be”; failed medical school
  • Portrayed as gay or effeminate
kelly shoemaker steele 1996
Kelly, Shoemaker & Steele (1996)
  • Nursing is feminine profession
  • Isolation
  • Self-doubt
  • Poor guidance in high school
  • Being a nurse perceived as “unmanly”
  • 1/3 of men questioned about their sexuality
porter o grady 2007
Porter-O’Grady (2007)
  • “Reverse discrimination” within nursing leadership
  • Subordinate to physicians
  • 2nd class
  • Salary disparity between nursing & other professions
brady serrod 2003
Brady & Serrod (2003)

Some male nursing students have come to believe that nursing is a new way of thinking in that they must not only learn to think and practice like a nurse, they must also learn to think and practice or act like women.

ellis meeker hyde 2006
Ellis, Meeker & Hyde (2006)
  • Very few role models
  • Perceived as lazy and underachievers
  • Do not have intelligence to attend medical school
  • Assumption of homosexuality
  • Considered to be Power Hungry

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