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Chapter 9 Lecture   Theories about Communication and the Evolution of Relationships I Can Change http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fLwZxIeJa_Y    ------ John Legend. Coffee and Conversation.

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Chapter 9 Lecture   Theories about Communication and the Evolution of Relationships I Can Change http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fLwZxIeJa_Y   ------John Legend

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

coffee and conversation
Coffee and Conversation
  • You find yourself refreshed by the presence of cheerful people. Why not make an honest effort to confer that pleasure on others? Half the battle is gained if you never allow yourself to say anything gloomy. Lydia M. Child What is the effect of a cheerful interpersonal communicator? How can you become a cheerful interpersonal communicator?

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

uncertainty reduction theory is a laws approach that includes axioms
Uncertainty reduction theory is a laws approach that includes axioms.

A.  Uncertainty reduction theory relies on the belief that human behavior is predictable.

  •      1.  Laws-based explanations assume that human behavior is the result of invariant laws.
  •      2.  Laws-based explanations assume human behavior is determined by external stimuli.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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Axioms are statements that are presumed to be true on face value and do not require proof.
  •  Uncertainty reduction theory includes 7 axioms as its foundation.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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Given the high level of uncertainty present at the onset of the entry phase of relations, as the amount of verbal communication between strangers increases, the level of uncertainty for each person in the relationship decreases. 
  • As uncertainty is further reduced, the amount of verbal communication increases.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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As nonverbal affiliative expressiveness increases, uncertainty levels decrease in an initial interaction situation. 
  • In addition, decreases in uncertainty level cause increases in nonverbal affiliative expressiveness.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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High levels of uncertainty cause increases in information-seeking behavior. 
  • As uncertainty levels decline, information-seeking behavior decreases.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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High levels of uncertainty in a relationship cause decreases in the intimacy level of communication content. 
  • Low levels of uncertainty produce higher levels of intimacy.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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High levels of uncertainty produce high rates of reciprocity in self-disclosing communication. 
  • Low levels of uncertainty produce low reciprocity rates.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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Similarities between persons reduce uncertainty; dissimilarities produce increases in uncertainty.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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Increases in uncertainty level produce decreases in liking. 
  • Decreases in uncertainty level produce increases in liking.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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  2.  The most basic claim of the theory is that uncertainty is uncomfortable so people communicate to reduce uncertainty.
  •      3.  These same axioms also appear to apply to intercultural communication.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

question talk about it
Question!?!?Talk about it!
  • Do you believe uncertainty can be eliminated in a relationship?
  • Should it be eliminated?
  • Provide specific examples to support your positions.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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III.  Social exchange theory is actually a group of theories that share three common assumptions.
  • Make a private list. . .

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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  A.  Humans evaluate their relationships by making cost-benefit analyses designed to maximize individual profit.
  •      1.  We measure rewards, which are positively valued phenomena we get from being in relationships.
  •      2.  We measure costs, which are negatively valued phenomena we incur from being in relationships.
  •      3.  The net outcome (O) of a relationship is rewards minus costs:  R - C.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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B.  We use standards of comparison to assess the meaning of net outcomes of relationships.
  • C.  People prefer equitable relationships to inequitable relationships.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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  1.  Equity concerns whether a relationship is fair over time.
  •   2.  Both feeling under-benefited and over-benefited in a relationship cause dissatisfaction and relational stress.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

talk about it
Talk about it.
  • What is your ethical position?  Research says this statement is false:  In most (50%+) dual-worker families home chores and child care are shared equally by both adult partners.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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  3.  Equity in terms of housework and caregiving is of primary importance in most dual-worker families.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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V.  Developmental theories focus on how relationships develop, grow, and decline over time.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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A.  First generation developmental theories had serious limitations.
  •      1.  They were excessively and inappropriately linear.
  •      2.  They implied an inevitability to relational development.
  •      3.  They did not include, nor apply to, a number of intimate relationships, such as gay and lesbian commitments.
  •      4.  They focused on external, observable phenomena to define stages in relational life.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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B.  Second generation developmental models are more sophisticated and useful.  James Honeycutt emphasized that relationships develop not because of events themselves, but because of how we interpret events.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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C.  Individual have "imagined trajectories," which are their understandings and expectations of the typical paths relationships follow.
  •      1.  They are a type of knowledge schemata that guides how we think about what is happening between us and others.
  •      2.  Relationships may also have turning points, which exist when we interpret certain relational events or moments as significant in changing the direction or nature of a relationship.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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VI.  Second generation developmental theories have not been seriously criticized.

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

romance
ROMANCE
  • What do you consider romantic? How and why might people perceive romance differently?   Airport Wedding Proposal

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

marriage
MARRIAGE
  • What are your attitudes about marriage?  You may want to interview several people.  Decide what questions you will ask.  You may want to ask people of different ages, sexual orientations, or ethnicities.  What happens in marriage? What do you think are the main correlates with a successful marriage?  Why do you think arranged marriages work for many people? You may find some interesting discussion prompts on the Internet.  Grover discusses What Is Marriage?  -  Arranged Marriage Funny Commercial - Grover discusses What Is Marriage?

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

breaking up
BREAKING UP
  • Talk about it. Breaking Up Is Hard To Do  - "How To Break Up" Tales Of Mere Existence - Breakin' Up Is Hard To Do - Neil Sedaka - Walking Away - Craig David

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

relational goals
RELATIONAL GOALS
  • Why do different people have different goals for individual relationships?  Conduct an interview asking people what they look for in their relationships.  You may find some interesting discussion prompts on the Internet.  Eurythmics - Sweet Dreams 1983 - alicia keys - If I ain't got you

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships

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End

Chapter 9 Evolution of Relationships