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KD 2.4. FUNGI

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KD 2.4. FUNGI

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  1. KD 2.4. FUNGI IP 1. Ciri2 Umum Divisio Dlm Kingdom Fungi IP 2. Pengamatan IP 3. Cara Reproduksi IP 4. Peranan

  2. IP 1. Ciri2 Umum • Sel Eukariotik b’dinding kitin. • Uniseluler (ex: Ragi “Saccharomyces cereviciae”) Multiseluler (: Hifa: bersepta & senositik; Miselium, Haustorium). 3. Heterotrof (parasit, saprofit / mutualisme). 4. Reproduksi Seksual (n)> Aseksual (2n).

  3. Klasifikasi 4 Divisio: Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota

  4. Zygomycota • Hifa senositik : Stolon, Rhizoid & Sprorangiofor • Reproduksi aseksual: Sporangiospora • Reproduksi seksual: Zygospora. Ex: Rhizopus (tempe), Mucor (saprofit pd roti, kotoran dll)

  5. Spora Sporangium Sporangiofor Rhizoid Stolon

  6. Rhizopus

  7. Mucor

  8. Ascomycota • Hifa b’septa, Uniseluler (ex: Saccharomyces), Multiseluler (ex: Penicillium, Nectria). • Reproduksi aseksual: Tunas (Budding) & Konidiospora (Konidia). • Reproduksi seksual: Askospora [askus (badan buah) askokarp (tubuh buah)]. Ex: Neurospora sitophila (oncom), Penicillium notatum (penisilin), Saccharomyces cereviciae (roti, alkohol), Aspergillus fumigatus (pernapasan), Candida albicans (sariawan, keputihan).

  9. Neurospora

  10. Saccharomyces

  11. Penicillium

  12. Aspergillus

  13. Candida

  14. Basidiomycota • Hifa bersepta, Tubuh buah makroskopis. • Reproduksi aseksual: Konidia. • Reproduksi seksual: Basidiospora. Ex: Volvariella, Pleuratus, Auricularia, Agaricus, Botulis, Ganoderma, Amanita.

  15. Agaricus

  16. Amanita

  17. Auricularia

  18. Boletus

  19. Clavaria

  20. Lycoperdon

  21. Phallus

  22. Phlebopus

  23. Polyporus

  24. Deuteromycota • Hifa bersepta. • Reproduksi aseksual: Konidia • Reproduksi seksual: ? “Fungi Imperfecti”. Ex: Chladosporium Epidermophyton (Penyakit Kaki) Microsporium, Trichophyton (Kurap) Tinea versicolor (Panu)

  25. Chladosporium sp.

  26. Epidermophyton

  27. Trichophyton rubrum

  28. Microsporium

  29. Tinea versicolor

  30. Asosiasi Mycophycophyta (Lichen = Lumut Kerak) Mycobion (Ascomycetes) + Phycobion (Chlorophyta / Cyanophyta) Mycorhiza: Endo & Ektomycorhiza Mycobion (Zygo, Asco, Basidio) + Rhiza (Pinus, Kol, Kacang dll)

  31. Lichenes

  32. Cladosporium • image_width = 250px • divisio = Deuteromycota • ordo = Moniliales • familia = Dematiaceae • genus = "Cladosporium" • genus_authority = Link: Fries • "Cladosporium" is a genus of fungi including some of the most common indoor and outdoor molds. It produces olive-green to brown or black colonies, and its dark-pigmented conidia are formed in simple or branching chains. • The many species of "Cladosporium" are commonly found on living and dead plant material. Some species are plant pathogens; others parasite, other fungi. "Cladosporium" spores are wind-dispersed and they are often extremely abundant in outdoor air. Indoors "Cladosporium" species may grow on surfaces when moisture is present. • "Cladosporium fulvum", cause of tomato leaf mould, has been an important genetic model, in that the genetics of host resistance are understood. [Rivas, S. & Thomas C.M., 2005. Molecular interactions between tomato and the leaf mold pathogen: Cladosporium fulvum. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43: 395-436.] • Health Effects • "Cladosporium" species are rarely pathogenic to humans, but have been reported to cause infections of the skin and toenails, as well as sinusitis and pulmonary infections. If left untreated, these infections could turn into respiratory infections like pneumonia. • The airborne spores of "Cladosporium" species are significant allergens, and in large amounts they can severely affect asthmatics and people with respiratory diseases. Prolonged exposure may weaken the immune system. "Cladosporium" species produce no major mycotoxins of concern, but do produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with odours.hello

  33. Epidermophyton • Epidermophyton spp. • Link ex Steudel, 1824 • Taxonomic Classification • Kingdom: Fungi • Phylum: Ascomycota • Class: Euascomycetes • Order: Onygenales • Family: Arthrodermataceae • Genus: Epidermophyton • Description and Natural Habitats • Epidermophyton is a filamentous fungus and one of the three fungal genera classified as dermatophytes. It is distributed worldwide. Man is the primary host of Epidermophyton floccosum, the only species which is pathogenic. The natural habitat of the related but the nonpathogenic species Epidermophyton stockdaleae is soil [529, 1295, 2202]. • Species • The genus Epidermophyton contains two species; Epidermophyton floccosum and Epidermophyton stockdaleae. E. stockdaleae is known to be nonpathogenic, leaving E. floccosum as the only species causing infections in humans. • Pathogenicity and Clinical Significance • E. floccosum is one of the common causes of dermatophytosis in otherwise healthy individuals. It infects skin (tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis) and nails (onychomycosis). The infection is restricted to the nonliving cornified layers of epidermis since the fungus lacks the ability to penetrate the viable tissues of the immunocompetent host [57, 1679, 2400]. Disseminated infections due to any of the dermatophytes are very unlikely due to the restriction of the infection to keratinized tissues. However, invasive E. floccosum infection has been reported in an immunocompromised patient with Behcet's syndrome [2068]. As with all forms of dermatophytosis, Epidermophyton floccosum infections are communicable and usually transmitted by contact, particularly in common showers and gym facilities. • Macroscopic Features • The colonies of E. floccosum grow moderately rapidly and mature within 10 days. Following incubation at 25 °C on potato dextrose agar, the colonies are brownish yellow to olive gray or khaki from the front. From the reverse, they are orange to brown with an occasional yellow border. The texture is flat and grainy initially and become radially grooved and velvety by aging. The colonies quickly become downy and sterile [531, 1295, 2144, 2202]. • Microscopic Features • Septate, hyaline hyphae, macroconidia, and occasionally, chlamydoconidium-like cells are visualized. Microconidia are typically absent. Macroconidia (10-40 x 6-12 µm) are thin walled, 3- to 5- celled, smooth, and clavate-shaped with rounded ends. They are found singly or in clusters. Chlamydoconidium-like cells, as well as arthroconidia, are common in older cultures [531, 1295, 2144, 2202]. • Histopathologic Features • See our histopathology page. • Compare to • Microsporum and Trichophyton • Epidermophyton floccosum is differentiated from Microsporum and Trichophyton by the absence of microconidia. • It is differentiated from E. stockdaleae by the aid of some microscopic and physiological features. In contrast to E. stockdaleae, E. floccosum is frequently unable to perforate hair. Macroconidia of E. stockdaleae are longer than those of E. floccosum. In contrast to E. floccosum, E. stockdaleae is tolerant to 7% NaCl. • Laboratory Precautions • No special precautions other than general laboratory precautions are required. • Susceptibility • As with the other dermatophytes, in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing methods have not been standardized for E. floccosum. However, there are some reports on in vitro activity of various antifungal drugs. Most of these studies have used the modifications of the NCCLS M 38P methodology documented for conidium forming filamentous fungi [1622]. The results of these studies show that, terbinafine, itraconazole,voriconazole, and ketoconazole generate low MICs and appear active in vitro against E. floccosum. Griseofulvin is less active than these compounds. Among all, fluconazole generates the highest MICs and appears to have the lowest activity [1119, 2307, 2310, 2432]. Amorolfine [1887] and naftifine [1399, 2307, 2310] also exhibit in vitro activity against E. floccosum. • For MICs of various antifungal drugs for E. floccosum, see our susceptibility database.

  34. Tinea versicolor • Width = 250 • Caption = • DiseasesDB = 10071 • ICD10 = ICD10|B|36|0|b|35 • ICD9 = ICD9|111.0 • ICDO = • OMIM = • MedlinePlus = 001465 • eMedicineSubj = derm • eMedicineTopic = 423 • MeshID = D014010 • Tinea versicolor or pityriasis versicolor is a common skin infection caused by the yeast "Malassezia furfur" (formerly termed "Pityrosporum ovale"). This yeast is normally found on the human skin and only becomes troublesome under certain circumstances, such as a warm and humid environment. • ymptoms • The symptoms of this condition include: • * Generally oval or irregularly-shaped spots of 1/4 to 1 inch (0.5 to 2.5 cm) in diameter, often merging together to form a larger patch • * Occasional fine scaling of the skin producing a very superficial ash-like scale • * Pale, dark tan, or pink in color, with a reddish undertone that can darken when the patient is overheated, such as in a hot shower or during/after exercise • * Sharp border • * Sometimes severe "pin-prick" itching in the affected areas; usually when the person's body temp is elevated by exercise or a hot/warm environment, but the person hasn't started sweating yet. Once sweating begins the "pin-prick" itching stops.fact|date=June 2008 • These spots commonly affect the back, underarm, upper arm, chest, lower legs, and neck. Occasionally it can also be present on the face. The yeasts can often be seen under the microscope within the lesions and typically have a so called "spaghetti and meat ball appearance" as the round yeasts produce filaments. • In people with dark skin tones, pigmentary changes such as hypopigmentation (loss of color) are common, while in those with lighter skin color, hyperpigmentation (increase in skin color) are more common. These discolorations have led to the term "sun fungus". • Prevalence • Tinea versicolor is a common condition. It is estimated that 2 to 8% of the population of the United States has it. This skin disease commonly affects adolescents and young adults, especially in warm and humid climates. It is thought that the yeast feeds on skin oils (lipids) as well as dead skin cells. • Treatment • Treatments for tinea versicolor include: • * Topical antifungal medications - containing either 2.5% selenium sulfide (Selsun shampoo in UK, but not Selsun Blue which contains only 1%) or 2% ketoconazole (Nizoral ointment and shampoo) applied to dry skin and washed off after 10 minutes, repeated daily for 2 weeks [ [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001465.htm#Treatment MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Tinea versicolor ] ] . Ciclopirox (Ciclopirox olamine) is an alternative treatment to ketoconazole as it suppresses growth of the yeast Malassezia furfur. Initial results show similar efficacy to ketoconazole with a relative increase in subjective symptom relief due to its inherent anti-inflammatory properties [cite journal |author=Ratnavel RC, Squire RA, Boorman GC |title=Clinical efficacies of shampoos containing ciclopirox olamine (1.5%) and ketoconazole (2.0%) in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis |journal=J Dermatolog Treat |volume=18 |issue=2 |pages=88–96 |year=2007 |pmid=17520465 |doi=10.1080/16537150601092944] . Other topical antifungal agents such as clotrimazole, miconazole or terbinafine are less widely recommended. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide has been known to lessen symptoms, and on certain occasions, remove the problem.Fact|date=February 2007 Clotrimazole (1%) is also used combined with selenium sulfide (2.5%) (Candid-TV). • * Oral antifungal prescription-only medications include 400 mg of ketoconazole or fluconazole in a single dose, or ketoconazole 200 mg daily for 7 days, or itraconazole 400 mg daily for 3-7 days. The single-dose regimens can be made more effective by having the patient exercise 1-2 hours after the dose, to induce sweating. The sweat is allowed to evaporate, and showering is delayed for a day, leaving a film of the medication on the skin. Fact|date=February 2007 • * Recurrence is common and may be reduced by intermittent application of topical agents (such as tea tree oil) or adding a small amount of anti-dandruff shampoo to water used for bathing.