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Notes 4-1. Intro to Atoms. Let’s see how much you remember…. Chapter Preview Questions. 1. Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds are a. elements. b. molecules. c. particles. d. electrons. Chapter Preview Questions.

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notes 4 1

Notes 4-1

Intro to Atoms

chapter preview questions
Chapter Preview Questions
  • 1. Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds are
  • a. elements.
  • b. molecules.
  • c. particles.
  • d. electrons.
chapter preview questions1
Chapter Preview Questions
  • 1. Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds are
  • a. elements.
  • b. molecules.
  • c. particles.
  • d. electrons.
chapter preview questions2
Chapter Preview Questions
  • 2. When elements are chemically combined in a set ratio, they form
  • a. molecules.
  • b. matter.
  • c. elements.
  • d. compounds.
chapter preview questions3
Chapter Preview Questions
  • 2. When elements are chemically combined in a set ratio, they form
  • a. molecules.
  • b. matter.
  • c. elements.
  • d. compounds.
chapter preview questions4
Chapter Preview Questions
  • 3. Which of the following is an example of an element?
  • a. copper
  • b. rust
  • c. concrete
  • d. water
chapter preview questions5
Chapter Preview Questions
  • 3. Which of the following is an example of an element?
  • a. copper
  • b. rust
  • c. concrete
  • d. water
chapter preview questions6
Chapter Preview Questions
  • 4. Two compounds with different properties are
  • a. C and O.
  • b. H and O.
  • c. CO and CO2.
  • d. Cl and Ar.
chapter preview questions7
Chapter Preview Questions
  • 4. Two compounds with different properties are
  • a. C and O.
  • b. H and O.
  • c. CO and CO2.
  • d. Cl and Ar.
what s an atom
What’s an atom?
  • Smallest particle of an element
atomic theories
Atomic Theories
  • There have been many theories of proposed models of the atom.
  • Some were completely wrong!
  • And some were partially correct or close to correct.
  • We will look at some of the most known theories and models.
dalton s atomic theory
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
  • Dalton thought that atoms were like smooth, hard balls that could not be broken into smaller pieces.
  • He was credited with coming up with the earliest model of the atom
  • Most of this theory is still accepted today
thomson s model
Thomson’s Model
  • Thomson suggested that atoms had negatively charged electrons embedded in a positive sphere.
  • This is the first model that included smaller particles of the atom
  • His model is similar to blueberries in a muffin
rutherford s model
Rutherford’s Model
  • Developed the first model that included a nucleus
  • Similar to a peach with a pit, the pit = the heavy mass of protons in the nucleus, the fruit = the empty space made up of electrons
rutherford s gold foil experiment
Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment
  • Turn to page 126-127 in your text book
  • Let’s read about Rutherford’s model/ experiment
  • Who wants to read first?
  • Everyone else, follow along….
rutherford s gold foil experiment1
Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment
  • Rutherford was surprised that a few particles were deflected strongly. This led him to propose an atomic model with a positively charged nucleus.
bohr s model
Bohr’s Model
  • Said electrons could only have a certain amount of energy, so they must move in certain orbits
  • Similar to planets orbiting the sun (sun = nucleus), or the rings/layers of an onion
cloud model
Cloud Model
  • Says Bohr’s model is wrong, electrons do not orbit the nucleus like planets do the sun
  • Instead, electrons can be found anywhere in a cloud-like region around the nucleus, rapidly orbiting in every direction
later atomic models
Later Atomic Models
  • Through the first part of the twentieth century, atomic models continued to change.
modern atomic model
Modern Atomic Model
  • Accepted since the 1930s
  • At the center of the atom is a massive nucleus, containing positively charged protons and neutrally charged neutrons (no charge)
  • Surrounding the nucleus is a cloud-like region of moving negatively charged electrons
  • # protons in atom = # electrons in atom
  • # neutrons can change
particles in an atom
Particles in an Atom
  • An atom is composed of positively charged protons, neutral neutrons, and negatively charged electrons. Protons and neutrons are about equal in mass. An electron has about 1/2,000 the mass of a proton or neutron.
atomic number
Atomic Number
  • Every atom of a given element has the same number of protons in its nucleus
  • This is known as the element’s atomic number
  • For example, Helium’s atomic number is 2, so every atom of helium has 2 protons in its nucleus. If the element has more than 2 protons, it is NOT helium!
  • Carbon’s atomic number is 6. How many protons does an atom of carbon have?
atomic number1
Atomic Number
  • The atomic number is usually found above the letter on the periodic table
  • Look at helium below
isotopes atoms of elements have same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Isotopes: Atoms of elements have same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
  • Atoms of all isotopes of carbon contain six protons and six electrons, but they differ in their number of neutrons. Carbon-12 is the most common isotope.
mass number
Mass number
  • An isotope is identified by its mass number
  • Mass number = #protons + #neutrons
  • Example: Carbon-12, the mass number is 12. We know carbon has 6 protons by looking at its atomic number on the periodic table. How many neutrons does carbon-12 have?

6

How do you know?

Because if the mass number is 12,

12 - 6protons = 6neutrons

problem
Problem:
  • The atomic number of nitrogen is 7. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons make up Nitrogen-15?
  • Protons = 7
  • Neutrons = 8
  • Electrons = 7
4 2 notes

4-2 Notes

Organizing the Elements

mendeleev s periodic table
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
  • 1869 Russian scientist who discovered a pattern of the elements
  • Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass (average mass of all the isotopes of an element)
  • Then he lined them up in groups of similar properties
  • Developed the first periodic table of elements
  • Contained 63 elements
the modern periodic table
The Modern Periodic Table
  • Changed as new elements were discovered
  • Contains over 100 elements
  • Arranged in order of increasing atomic number (not atomic mass like Mendeleev’s)
  • Atomic number = number of protons in an atom of that element
  • The properties of an element can be predicted from its location on the periodic table
the periodic table
The Periodic Table
  • Elements are organized into rows and columns based on their atomic number.
the periodic table1
The Periodic Table
  • Elements are organized into rows and columns based on their atomic number.
the periodic table2
The Periodic Table
  • Elements are organized into rows and columns based on their atomic number.
classes of elements
Classes of Elements
  • Open your books to pages 134-135
  • Each colored region corresponds to a different class of elements
  • Metals = blue
  • Semimetals = yellow
  • Nonmetals = light green
  • Inert gases = dark green
periods
Periods
  • Horizontal rows
  • There are 7 periods on the table, look how they are labeled on the left side of the table
  • Properties within each period change in a pattern
  • Notice the lanthanides and actinides have been taken out of the table and placed underneath it
  • This is to save space and make the table easier to read
  • Look at the expanded table on page 136
groups
Groups
  • Vertical columns
  • Aka family
  • Elements within the same groups have similar characteristics
finding data on elements
Finding Data on Elements
  • Each square in the periodic table lists four pieces of information: an element’s atomic number, chemical symbol, name, and atomic mass.
problems
Problems:

The atomic number tells how many _________ are in an atom of the element.

Protons

problems1
Problems:

What is the chemical symbol for lead?

Pb

problems2
Problems:

How many protons does potassium have?

19

problems3
Problems:

What group number is beryllium in?

Group 2

problems4
Problems:

What period does silver belong to?

Period 5

notes 4 5

Notes 4-5

Radioactive Elements

isotopes
Isotopes
  • Atoms with same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
  • Example:
  • Carbon-12 (normal carbon) versus Carbon-14
  • Some isotopes are unstable
  • Nuclei break down in a process of radioactive decay, releasing particles and energy
radioactivity
Radioactivity
  • Spontaneously emitting radiation
  • Example: Uranium, Polonium, Radium
  • There are 3 types of radioactive decay
types of radioactive decay
Types of Radioactive Decay
  • During alpha decay, a nucleus loses an alpha particle, which consists of two protons and two neutrons.

* Decreases atomic # by 2, and mass # by 4

types of radioactive decay1
Types of Radioactive Decay
  • During beta decay, a neutron inside an unstable nucleus changes into a negatively charged beta particle and a proton.

* Atomic # increases by 1, mass # remains the same

types of radioactive decay2
Types of Radioactive Decay
  • Gamma radiation has no charge and does not cause a change in either the atomic mass or the atomic number.
types of radioactive decay3
Types of Radioactive Decay
  • The three types of nuclear radiation were named based on how easily each one could be blocked. Alpha, beta, and gamma are the first three letters of the Greek alphabet.
using radioactive isotopes
Using Radioactive Isotopes
  • Cancer treatment
  • Chemical reactions
  • Industrial processes
  • Electricity
  • Smoke detectors
  • Pest control
  • Rock/ fossil dating
  • Food treatment
  • Nuclear weapons
risks of radioactive isotopes
Risks of Radioactive Isotopes
  • Burn causing
  • Cancer causing
  • Genetic mutations
  • death
review
Review
  • Use your periodic table to predict the element that forms in each case of radioactive decay:

IsotopeType of DecayElement Formed

Uranium-238 Alpha

Nickel-63 Beta

Iodine-131 Beta

Radium-226 Alpha

Thorium-234

Copper-63

Xenon-131

Radon-222