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Sombrero: Implementation of a Single Address Space Paradigm for Distributed Computing Exhibiting Reduced Complexity. Alan Skousen Arizona State University Operating Systems Research. OUTLINE. Basics Why SASOS? Computer Evolution Protection Models Sombrero Current Architecture

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Sombrero: Implementation of a Single Address Space Paradigm for Distributed Computing Exhibiting Reduced Complexity

Alan Skousen

Arizona State University

Operating Systems Research

outline
OUTLINE
  • Basics
  • Why SASOS?
  • Computer Evolution
  • Protection Models
  • Sombrero Current Architecture
  • Implementation Effort
  • Middle Level Architecture and Tools
  • Research Contributions
  • Summary

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

many address space operating systems masos
Many Address Space Operating Systems - MASOS
  • Current Operating System Technology is based on Multiple VA spaces commonly known as processes.
  • UNIX, Windows NT, Windows 9x, Linux, MACH etc.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

single address space operating systems sasos
Single Address Space Operating Systems - SASOS
  • Use only a single address space
  • Examples:MS-DOS, many embedded OSs, Mac etc.
  • Single VA space OS’s: AS400, Opal, Mungi, Monads, Sombrero etc.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

namespace
Namespace
  • A domain of all possible names each of which can be paired with at most one object.
  • Namespaces include: File names, IP numbers, Capabilities, DSM space, the addresses in a virtual address space.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

very large single address space operating system vlsasos
Very Large Single Address Space Operating System – VLSASOS
  • Very Large Namespace
  • 64 bit address space, 18 Quintillion bytes
  • 4GB/s can be allocated for 136 years
  • Can be used instead of file systems and other name spaces. Reduces the need for namespace translation.
  • Est 30% of code used for trans to/from store

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

why sasos
Why SASOS?
  • Single namespace allows complexity reduction due to elimination of code performing namespace translations. Atkinson 30% translation code; Feigen 80% program effort, 65% bug prediction.
  • Reduced requirements mean cost of writing programs is reduced.
  • Natural persistence, reduced memory copying, and reduced context switching.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

coding example
Coding example

//MASOS client that uses file server to copy a file:

#include <header.h>

int copy(char *src, char *dst) /* procedure to copy file using the server */

{

struct message m1; /* message buffer */

long position; /* current file position */

long client = 110; /* client's address */

initialize(); /* prepare for execution */

position = 0;

do {

/* Get block of data from source file */

m1.opcode = READ; /* operation is a read */

m1.offset = position; /* current position in the file */

m1.count = BUF_SIZE; /* how many bytes to read */

strcpy(&m1.name, src); /* copy name of file to be read to message */

send(FILE_SERVER, &m1); /* send message to the file server */

receive(client, &m1); /* block waiting for the reply */

/* Write the data just received to the destination file */

m1.opcode = WRITE; /* operation is a write */

m1.offset = position; /* current position in the file */

m1.count = m1.result; /* how many bytes to write */

strcpy(&m1.name, dst); /* copy name of file to be written to buf */

send(FILE_SERVER, &m1); /* send the message to the file server */

receive(client, &m1); /* block waiting for the reply */

position += m1.result; /* m1.result is the number of bytes written */

} while (m1.result > 0); /* iterate until done */

return(m1.result >= 0 ? OK : m1.result); /* return OK or error code */

}

//MASOS file server:

#include <header.h>

void main(void)

{

struct message m1, m2; /* incoming and outgoing messages */

int r; /* result code */

while (1) {

receive (FILE_SERVER,&m1); /* server runs forever */

switch(m1.opcode) {

case CREATE: r = do_create(&m1, &m2); break;

case READ: r = do_read(&m1, &m2); break;

case WRITE: r = do_write(&m1, &m2); break;

case DELETE: r = do_delete(&m1, &m2); break;

default: r = E_BAD_OPCODE;

}

m2.result = r; /* return result to client */

send(m1.source, &m2); /* send reply */

}

}

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

coding cont
Coding cont.

//SASOS Memory object copy

int copy(char *src, char *dst)

{

FILE_OBJECT *from, *to;

from = address(src); /*address() is a new function that obtains an object's*/

to = address(dst); /*address from the NameServer.*/

*to = *from;

}

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

server access active passive
Server access Active Passive

Client Thread

Client Thread

Receive Message

Send Message

Returning Thread

Calling Thread

Server has own Thread

Server uses client Thread

SASOS and MASOS SASOS only

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

computer evolution
Computer Evolution
  • VA space reuse is compelling in 16 and 32 bit computers.
  • Inherent isolation solves protection problem for free.
  • It also creates a very large access problem for sharing and communication.
  • The process paradigm is now the accepted way.
  • Much OS research energy is therefore dedicated to making inter-process access less difficult.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

evolution cont
Evolution cont.
  • 64 bit processors encourage a new approach since VA space reuse is no longer a compelling issue.
  • The protection that came for free in the process paradigm remains a compelling issue.
  • A different approach to the access problem is to make protection the issue and get access for free.
  • Sombrero represents that paradigm switch.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

masos vs sasos
MASOS Vs SASOS

More Protection

Easier Memory Sharing

  • Relatively Secure
  • Trust is implicit
  • Limited to Active Services since threads can’t migrate.
  • Pointer Translation
  • Pipes/RPC/Sockets
  • Files for communication
  • Distributed Shared Memory
  • RAM-Centricity
  • Easily Corruptible
  • Very Trusting
  • Passive Services
  • Transparent memory sharing
  • Simple communication semantics, i.e. no IPC

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

main issue in vlsasos design is the protection mechanism
Main Issue in VLSASOS Design is the Protection Mechanism
  • Two main issues in protection mechanism: Memory protection; Protection Domain Switching.
  • Two Protection Models are used: Standard Access Matrix; CPU Access Matrix

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

standard access matrix sam
Standard Access Matrix (SAM)
  • SAM is an Explicit Protection model that requires user code to invoke.
  • SASOS PD Switching is normally based on SAM model. Most use Capabilities, All are Explicit PD Switching models.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

cpu access matrix cam
CPU Access Matrix (CAM)
  • CAM is an Implicit Protection model.
  • Protection and PD switching are Implicit
  • Makes better use of the SAS properties and reduces program complexity even more.
  • Used for memory access protection (TLBs)

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

standard vs cpu access matrix
Standard vs. CPU Access Matrix
  • The standard Access Matrix is good at representing protection policy.
  • The CPU Access Matrix is good at representing protected access in terms that the CPU can directly use.
  • By combining the two matrices we get the best of both. This allows implicit (transparent) protection and domain switching.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

sombrero hardware
SOMBRERO HARDWARE
  • Implements CPU Access Matrix.
  • Region Protection Lookaside Buffer - RPLB.
  • Projects hard walls of protection into VA space.
  • Introduces Implicit PD Switching.
  • Implements classical OO encapsulation in hardware: Services don’t need to depend on the compiler for protection. Objects accessible only through entry points.
  • Allows dependable passive services.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

slide19

To a first approximation the RPLB

Functions in a manner similar

to a subnet mask in a network router

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

carrier protection domain cpd
Carrier Protection Domain (CPD)
  • Sombrero distinguishes between two PD types:
  • General Protection Domain – Memory, Executable code, and PD switches
  • Carrier PD – Memory and PD switches. Used by threads to ‘carry’ state. Real thread local storage.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

protection and resource access list pral
Protection and Resource Access List - PRAL
  • Both the standard Access Matrix and CPU Access Matrix data are stored in the PRAL.
  • Traversed by CPU during execution or data access on RPLB miss.
  • PRAL data is managed through protected system service calls.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

slide22

The PRAL provides CPU Access Matrix data to

the RPLB from the lists of accessible memory objects.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

sombrero program instantiation
Sombrero Program Instantiation
  • A Sombrero program instantiation has one or more entry points (methods). The program can be as trivial and efficient as a subroutine call or as expensive as need be to support any trust relationship. Program methods are like conventional subroutines and are called with an argument list and can return a typed value depending on the entry point. This is the classical model for a class instance in OOP.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

sombrero current architecture
Sombrero Current Architecture
  • Kernel Services distributed among executive protection domains
  • No central kernel and no hardware protected kernel mode
  • A few Protection Domain Lock Registers name the protection domain that can access sensitive protected instructions and registers

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

vlsas d os
VLSAS-D-OS
  • The Sombrero model is extended to the Network using a copyset algorithm known as Token Tracking.
  • Sombrero allows the network to be viewed as a single large NUMA multiprocessor.
  • Pointers remain valid across network.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

distributed object copy set management
Distributed Object Copy Set Management

Last Known Writer Graph

Pruning of Last Known Writer Graph

Pruning of Modified Page Cache Graph

Modified Page Cache Graph

CopySet Graph

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

network consistency
Network Consistency
  • The Sombrero address space remains accessible and consistent across the network by distributing system level data to neighboring nodes.
  • Implements selected consistency semantics for each memory object.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

backward compatibility
Backward compatibility
  • General purpose computing allows processor emulation.
  • Fully emulated processor can install any OS for that processor.
  • VMware uses this approach.
  • Had been successful at running Intel programs on NT Alpha. FX32.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

side effects of processor emulation
Side Effects of Processor Emulation
  • Any program running on Sombrero is distributed by default.
  • Any OS installed on emulated hardware is therefore automatically distributed.
  • End up with any OS plus virtualization and distribution for free.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

implementation effort
Implementation Effort
  • Sombrero constructed on a network of cooperating computers

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

development tools
Development Tools
  • Hardware – Networked W2K, Alpha Linux, Alpha NT 4.0, AlphaBios on Target Alpha
  • Languages – C, C++, Alpha assembler
  • Compilers – VC++, MSC, GCC, GAS, ASAXP
  • My Custom Tools on Linux for the Sombrero Compiler: sosbuild, buildsxe, catdebug
  • My Custom Tools on W2K host: SOSHostdll, SOSHost, SOSDebug, SOSRBuild

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

sombrero boot sequence
Sombrero Boot Sequence
  • Start Sombrero boot loader on Target Alpha
  • Target contacts Host and requests modules
  • Host sends modules to Target
  • Boot loader on Target instantiates system modules
  • Boot loader on Target starts Debugger on W2K Host and transfers control to Sombrero system modules.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

middle level architecture
Middle Level Architecture
  • Middle Level Architecture was developed during implementation to solve issues that became apparent during implementation.
  • New hardware design, Compiler support, system strategies, libraries, useful behavior.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

compiler support
Compiler Support
  • The GCC based Sombrero Compiler was designed to support IDC via Entry and Return points.
  • Every Sombrero program has a class type to represent it.
  • Entry points to other instantiations are accessed via proxy program class instantiations

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

runtime depiction of a proxy method invocation
Runtime Depiction of a proxy method invocation

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

some middle architecture
Some Middle Architecture
  • Tail Switch – Allows RPLB to push a one-shot return permission on thread tail stack.
  • Semaphores and Locks – Special advantage can be taken of a SASOS to make Semaphores and Locks globally visible without system calls or a lock manager.
  • Interrupts can be designed to act directly as a signal to a blocking thread.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

more middle architecture
More Middle Architecture
  • Sombrero Communication Protocol – built over UDP/IP stack
  • Library support for heaps and trees
  • Intermediate Cache between emulated RPLB and PRAL
  • Scheduler, Run time Linker and other system modules.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

my contributions
My Contributions
  • RPLB Protection Model
  • Carrier Protection Domains
  • Implicit Protection Domain Switching
  • Kernelless Architecture
  • Binding Hardware resources to PDs
  • Policy Programmable System Hierarchies
  • Entry/Return Point Mechanism
  • Tail Switch

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

my contributions cont
My Contributions Cont.
  • C++ Compiler Support for Return/Entry
  • Semaphores and Locks
  • Passive System Services
  • Signal Interrupts
  • Proposed Algorithms to Distribute Sombrero
  • Surrogate Control Blocks - Routing
  • Reduced Complexity
  • Did all the actual implementation work

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University

summary
Summary
  • The ultimate goal of Sombrero is to provide:
    • a distributed client/server environment that is inherently less complex and therefore inherently cheaper to manage and program.
    • gets improved performance from the hardware.

Alan Skousen Dissertation Defense - Arizona State University