Energy flow in ecosystems
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Energy Flow in Ecosystems. Components of an Ecosystem. living and non-living things interact with each other in an ecosystem biomass – total mass of all living matter in an area abiotic factors – non-living things biotic factors – living things. Abiotic Factors.

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Components of an ecosystem
Components of an Ecosystem

  • living and non-living things interact with each other in an ecosystem

    • biomass – total mass of all living matter in an area

    • abiotic factors – non-living things

    • biotic factors – living things

Abiotic factors
Abiotic Factors

The four major abiotic components are: a. climate b. soil, dead material, and rock c. topography d. natural disturbances

Biotic factors
Biotic Factors

Biotic factors are anything that is living: a. plants b. animals c. microscopic organisms

Abiotic factors find the abiotic and biotic factors
Abiotic FactorsFind the abiotic and biotic factors

Biotic factors find the abiotic and biotic factors
Biotic FactorsFind the abiotic and biotic factors

Energy roles
Energy Roles

  • Energy enters an ecosystem as sunlight

  • Energy flows through an ecosystem in a cycle

  • Each organism has a role to play in this energy flow

    • Producer

    • Consumer

    • Decomposer

Producers autotrophs

  • Producers make their own food and are the source of all the energy in an ecosystem

  • Autotrophs

    • Plants, algae, grass, trees, flowers, bacteria, plankton

Consumers heterotrophs

  • Cannot make their own food

  • Get their energy from consuming other organisms

  • Heterotrophs

    • herbivores

    • carnivores

    • omnivores

Decomposers and scavengers
Decomposers and Scavengers

  • Decomposers break down waste and return the raw materials into the soil

  • Waste and dead organisms must be removed from the environment

    • Bacteria

    • Fungi

    • Carrion eaters like vultures, coyotes, maggots

Food chains
Food Chains

  • A series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy.

    • first organism in a food chain is always a producer

    • Next organisms are consumers

Food chains1
Food Chains

  • Decomposers can be at any level

Food web
Food Web

  • A food chain just shows one track of energy flow

  • A food web consists of many overlapping food chains

  • Organisms can play more than one role in a food web

Trophic level
Trophic Level

  • Organisms can be divided into trophic levels

  • producers are at the bottom

  • Next are primary consumers

  • (herbivores)

  • Secondary consumers (omnivores

  • or carnivores)

  • Tertiary consumers (omnivores or

  • carnivores)

Trophic level1
Trophic Level

Energy pyramids
Energy Pyramids

  • An energy pyramid shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web

  • At each level upward, the amount of energy decreases due to use

Energy pyramids1
Energy Pyramids

  • When an organism eats food, it obtains energy

  • The organism uses some of this energy for living (about 90%)

  • Not all of this energy is available to the next consumer in line (only 10% moves to the next level)

Energy pyramids2
Energy Pyramids

  • The most energy is available at the producer level

  • The amount of energy at the producer level determines how many organisms an ecosystem can support

  • The least amount of energy is available at the third level or tertiary consumer

Cycling of energy
Cycling of Energy

Once an organism dies, decomposers take over and break down the material it was made of

These nutrients are put back into the soil

Plants then use those nutrients along with sunlight to recycle that energy back into the food chain

Cycling of energy1
Cycling of Energy

Composting – helping the natural decomposition process break down waste

Using a compost bin, we can recycle food scraps and return those nutrients to the soil

Energy flow in ecosystems

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