Chapter 47: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. 47-1 The Circulatory System. 47-2 Blood. 47-3 The Respiratory System. 47-1 The Circulatory System. I. The Heart (THORACIC cavity, behind STERNUM). Moves blood PULMONARY and SYSTEMIC loops.
47-1 The Circulatory System
47-3 The Respiratory System
I. The Heart (THORACIC cavity, behind STERNUM)
(1) Pericardium (promotes LONGEVITY of cardiac tissue)
(1)Some babies are born with a HOLE in the septum between the two atria. Based on what you know about BLOOD FLOW through the heart, explain why this condition would be HARMFUL to the baby.
Critical Thinking (L)]
(2)One function of the cardiovascular system is to help maintain a uniform BODY TEMPERATURE. Explain HOW the constant circulation of blood throughout the body MAY accomplish this task.
(1) Aorta (THICKEST artery)
(1) Sinoatrial Node (SA) [“Pacemaker”, located in RIGHT ATRIUM]
(2) Atrioventricular Node (AV) [Located in the SEPTUM between ATRIA]
(1) Arteries (carry blood AWAY from heart) ventricles)
(3) Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure ventricles)
(4) Hypertension (sustained High Blood Pressure) ventricles)
(F) Capillaries and Veins ventricles)
(1) Arterioles (arterioles-CAPILLARIES-venules) ventricles)
(2) Capillaries (1-celled thick) ventricles)
II. Patterns of Circulation valves)
(1) Pulmonary Circulation
(2) Systemic Circulation
(A) Pulmonary Circulation valves)
(1) Pulmonary Veins (RETURN blood from LUNGS back to LA)
(B) Systemic Circulation valves)
Critical Thinking valves)
(3)Why might it be possible that a person could turn PALE when they are frightened?
(1) Coronary Circulation (a SUBSYSTEM of systemic circulation)
(3) Renal Circulation (a second SUBSYSTEM) circulation)
(4) Hepatic Portal Circulation (a third SUBSYSTEM) circulation)
(1) Lymph (GETS CHECKED AT LYMPH NODES) BUT NO pump)
47-2 Blood BUT NO pump)
I. Composition of Blood (55% Liquid, 45% Solid Cells)
(A) Plasma (yellowish LIQUID of blood) BUT NO pump)
Critical Thinking BUT NO pump)
(4) Even a small increase or decrease in blood volume has an effect on BLOOD PRESSURE. When an accident victim suffers significant blood LOSS, the person is transferred with PLASMA rather than whole blood. Why might plasma be effective in meeting the IMMEDIATE threat to life?
(B) Red Blood Cells (a.k.a. Erythrocytes) BUT NO pump)
(1) Erythrocytes (NO nucleus, CANNOT divide)
(2) Hemoglobin BUT NO pump)
(2) Phagocytes (e.g., Macrophage, Dendritic Cells) BUT NO pump)
(D) Platelets (cell FRAGMENTS formed in RED marrow) BUT NO pump)
(1) Fibrin BUT NO pump)
II. Blood Types BUT NO pump)
(1) Blood Types (A, B, AB, O) BUT NO pump)
(2) Antigen (either protein or glycoprotein) BUT NO pump)
(A) A-B-O System BUT NO pump)
(B) Rh System (85% is Rh +, 15% is Rh-) BUT NO pump)
(1) Rh Factor (named after Rhesus Monkey) BUT NO pump)
47-3 Respiratory System BUT NO pump)
I. The Lungs (ATMOSPHERE-BLOOD-ATMOSPHERE)
Critical Thinking BUT NO pump)
(5)Polio is a disease that paralyzes muscles by affecting the nerves that make them move. Before the polio vaccine was developed, many people afflicted with polio died to a LACK of respiration. Some of the survivors had to be placed in an “iron lung” that breathed for them. From what you know about the respiratory system, explain why people stricken with polio could no longer breathe on their own.
(1) External Respiration (OUTSIDE the body) BUT NO pump)
(2) Internal Respiration (INSIDE the body) BUT NO pump)
(A) The Passage of Air BUT NO pump)
(1) Epiglottis BUT NO pump)
(2) Trachea (a.k.a. windpipe, BRANCHES into bronchi) BUT NO pump)
(3) Larynx (UPPER region of trachea) BUT NO pump)
(4) Bronchi & Bronchioles (i.e., bronchi BRANCH to bronchioles)
(5) Alveoli (the END of a bronchiole) bronchioles)
Critical Thinking bronchioles)
(6) A person with anemia has TOO FEW red blood cells. The most common symptom is a LACK of energy. Why might anemia result in this symptom?
(B) Hemoglobin and Gas Exchange gradient)
(1) Inspiration (i.e., inhalation INCREASES volume of thoracic cage)
(2) Expiration (i.e., exhalation DECREASES volume of thoracic cage)
(1) The blood on the right side of the heart (deoxygenated blood) would mix with blood on the left side (oxygenated blood). As a result, cells would not get enough oxygen.
(2) Blood circulates very closet to every cell in the body, absorbing heat where the body is warmer than the blood and releasing heat where the body is cooler than the blood. Thus, blood distributes heat throughout the body, contributing to a uniform body temperature.
(3) Blood flow to the skin is reduced, and blood flow to muscles and glands is increased. Thus, a person may appear pale when frightened.
(4) The accident victim’s loss of blood volume and the loss of body fluid can cause the victim to go into shock. Transfusing plasma replenishes the fluid, helps stabilize the patient, and can be done quickly without taking time to type. The small number of antibodies the plasma contains become harmlessly diluted in the patient’s own blood.
(5) Polio can result in paralysis of the diaphragm and the muscles that control the rib cage. If these muscles cannot move, then the person cannot breathe.
(6) The fewer red blood cells there are, the less hemoglobin there is. The smaller the amount of hemoglobin, the smaller the amount of oxygen that can be transported. A smaller amount of oxygen means a decreased level of aerobic respiration and less energy (ATP).