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Second and Third Wave Feminism. Canadian History Ms. Lim. What is Feminism?. The political, economic and social equality of the sexes. Key Struggles in Feminism. Violence against women at work and at home End to poverty Equity Job progression and promotion Quality universal child care

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second and third wave feminism

Second and Third Wave Feminism

Canadian History

Ms. Lim

what is feminism
What is Feminism?
  • The political, economic and social equality of the sexes.
key struggles in feminism
Key Struggles in Feminism
  • Violence against women at work and at home
  • End to poverty
  • Equity
  • Job progression and promotion
  • Quality universal child care
  • Maternity leave
  • Right to control their bodies – contraception and abortion
1950 s
  • “normalize” the nation
    • Women to be “queens” of their tiny perfect world
  • Mass marketing to be “the perfect woman”
  • 1941 -5% of women worked outside the home. In 1951 – 15%

Legal to discriminate against married women

    • School boards had policies forcing women to resign when they married
    • 1951 Ontario Teachers Federation passed a resolution stating that marriage should not be the grounds for dismissal and called for maternity leave.
  • Discriminatory female wage rates and hiring practices.
    • 1951 – Female Employees Fair Remuneration Act
      • first equal pay legislation
      • Lack of enforcement of the act
the rise of the women s liberation movement 1960s
The Rise of the Women’s Liberation Movement: 1960s
  • Global wave of radicalization
    • Vietnam, Black Power, Lesbian and Gay Rights, Indian Rights
  • Between 1965-1975 the number of employed women in Canada rose by 79%. In 1961 1/3 of all adult women were working.
  • Abortion, contraception services, heath centres, rape crisis services, shelters for abused women, midwifery and other services were est.
    • 1969 contraception decriminalized and some abortions allowed but only under extreme conditions.
  • Demand for universal childcare.
  • Women in unions demanded promotions on the same basis as men, paid maternity leave, elimination of sexual harassment and improved job security.
  • May 11, 1970 2 days of demonstration to change abortion laws.
    • 30 women chained themselves to the National Gallery in the House of Commons. 500 women outside refused to disperse.
  • 1978 First Women’s Day – marches
  • Early 1970s Ontario teachers successfully fought a TDSB policy requiring pregnant women to resign.
maternity leave
Maternity Leave
  • Avg full pay ranged only 1-6 weeks
  • Paid maternity leave becoming a focus for unions
  • 1977 Canadian Union of postal workers included paid maternity leave after a 42 week strike.
wage equity
Wage Equity
  • In 1971 the avg annual earnings of women working full-time represented only 59.7% of those of men.
  • Strikes were critical to achieving better wages and union membership.
  • 1976 two critical organizations were formed
    • Women Working with Immigrant Women (WWIW)
      • Pushed for policy and legislation change to support immigrant women in the labour force.
    • Organized Working Women (OWW)
      • Consisted of women in unions who worked together to ensure women’s issues were central at bargaining tables, and conventions.

Strikes of 70s and 80s featured massive police presence, violence and other forms of intimidation.

  • Increased recognition of women’s inequality and major victories.
  • Sexual orientation included in the definition of discrimination.
  • 1982 Charter of Rights and Freedoms outlawed discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical origin.
  • Sexual orientation was added in 1995.
minority groups
Minority Groups
  • 1980 Congress of Black Women was founded
    • Multiple layers of discrimination
  • 1983 Ontario Coalition of Visible Minority Women was founded
    • Lobby for foreign credentials, racism, workplace language training.
  • 1986 Coalition of Black Trade Unionists founded
changing laws
Changing Laws
  • 1987 Supreme Court est. women’s legal right to workplaces free from sexual harassment
    • Placed onus on employers to provide a healthy work environment.
  • Pro-Choice Movement: 1988 Supreme Court struck down Canada’s abortion law as unconstitutional.
    • Abortion no longer considered a crime.
1980s issues
1980s Issues
  • Women and immigrants hired last and fired first in the 1980s recession. Legislation in 1982 removed the right to negotiate for pay equity, paid maternity leave, protection from sexual harassment and paid maternity leave. ---Froze women’s advancements in the workplace.
  • Anti-immigrant, anti-Quebec, homophobia
  • Dec 6, 1989 14 Female engineering students were gunned down at Montreal’s E’colePolytechnique. The gunman shouted, “I hate feminists”
the glass ceiling
The Glass Ceiling
  • Men promoted in disproportionate numbers
pay equity act
Pay Equity Act
  • 1988 Ontario Government passed the Pay Equity Act
third wave feminism
Third Wave Feminism
  • Organizing of…
    • Multi-racial
    • Multi-gender
    • Multi-class
  • 1996 Women’s March Against Poverty
    • Largest women’s demonstration in Cdnhistory
    • Women in low paying, repetitive jobs.

1990’s many unions were successful in re-defining “spouse” to include same-sex relationships

  • Late 1980s and 1990s saw the beginning of anti-racist initiatives within unions, locals and labour centrals
    • 1991 Black and Philipino nurses challenged racism and discrimination. Forced the Ontario Human Rights commission to address it as Canada’s first systemic case on the grounds of race.
contemporary threads
Contemporary Threads
  • Girlie Feminism
    • Reclamation of makeup and other girlie accoutrements and the validation of female activities like cooking, crafting and talking about sex.
  • Pro-Sex Feminism
    • Reaction to feminist anti-porn crusade and sexual repression.
  • Post-Feminism
    • Idea: feminism has outlived its usefulness. Put down your torches because the fight is over. Suggests that everything is hunky-dory.
double standards
Double Standards
how to ask good interview questions
How to ask good interview questions
  • Comparison
  • “To what extent”
  • “How”
  • Clear up misconceptions – start with the definition
  • Follow up questions to get more information
    • Give me an example
alternative assignment
Alternative Assignment
  • Write a 500 word newspaper article on second or third wave feminism. Be sure to include contrasting opinions and at least three quotations.