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Cell Reproduction

Cell Reproduction

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Cell Reproduction

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Cell Reproduction

  2. Structure of DNA during cell division • Chromatid • Centromere • Chromatin Chromosomes

  3. Sex chromosomes • Autosomes • Homologous pairs • Karyotype • Diploid vs. Haploid Chromosomes

  4. Binary fission • Results in two identical offspring/new cells Prokaryotic Cell Division

  5. Mitosis • Occurs in somatic cells • New cells are identical Eukaryotic Cell Division

  6. True • False All of the non sex chromosomes are called autosomes.

  7. Interphase and Mitosis Cell Cycle

  8. Not considered Mitosis • G1 – growth phase • S – DNA is copied • G2 – growth phase; microtubules formed Interphase

  9. Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase • Cytokinesis Mitosis

  10. Centrosomes (centrioles) appear and move towards ends of cell • DNA as chromosomes is visible • Spindle fibers forms • Nuclear envelope begins to break down Prophase

  11. Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell • Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes Metaphase

  12. True • False If a fruit fly has 8 chromosomes, then it’s haploid number is 4.

  13. Spindle fibers pull apart the chromatids • New single chromosomes pulled towards pole Anaphase

  14. Spindle fibers break down • Chromosomes return to chromatin form • Nuclear envelope reforms Telophase

  15. Cleavage furrow forms • Parent cell cleaved into two identical offspring/new cells Cytokinesis

  16. Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase [Default] [MC Any] [MC All] In which phase of mitosis do chromatids separate and become individual chromosomes?

  17. Asters • Cell plate forms during cytokinesis; eventually becomes cell wall Plant Cell Mitosis

  18. G1 growth – cell must be healthy and large enough to divide; if not, then the cycle will not continue • G2 synthesis – DNA that was copied will be checked and repairs made • M – cell will exit mitosis Checkpoints

  19. Division of Sex Cells

  20. Formation of gametes/haploid cells • Involves two distinct stages • Also goes through G1, S, and G2 phases • Occurs in diploid sex cells Meiosis

  21. Chromosomes and spindle fibers appear • Nuclear envelope begins to dissolve • Homologous chromosomes pair up • Crossing over can occur in a tetrad Prophase I

  22. Tetrads randomly line up in the middle • Spindle fibers attach to each homologous pair Metaphase I

  23. Spindle fibers pull apart the tetrads, resulting in chromatids being pulled to opposite ends of the cell • Independent assortment Anaphase I

  24. Chromosomes reach the end of the cell • Cytokinesis begins • 2 Haploid cells Telophase I and Cytokinesis

  25. Spindle fibers form • Nuclear envelope dissolves Prophase II

  26. Chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell Metaphase II

  27. Chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers. Anaphase II

  28. Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes • Cleavage furrow begins to form • 4 Haploid cells Telophase II and Cytokinesis

  29. Sperm • Spermatogenesis • Egg • Oogenesis Gametes