蘋果公司賈伯斯與易經中共同的創新基因 Minder Chen Associate Professor of MIS Martin V. Smith School of Business and Economics California State University Channel Islands Camarillo, CA 93012 Minder.email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org The Common Innovation DNA in Apple’s Steve Jobs and the Book of Changes
Blue Box The parts cost about $40, and Jobs decided they should sell it for $150. http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/the_spectator/2011/10/the_article_that_inspired_steve_jobs_secrets_of_the_little_blue_.single.html “Secrets of the Little Blue Box” The 1971 article about phone hacking that inspired Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak Two Steves first venture, 1972….
Apple 1 - 1975 天時 人 事 物 地利
Power of Vision Homebrew Computer Club Apple Computer formed April 1, 1976. Steve Jobs has never underestimated the power of vision to move a brand forward. In 1976, Steve Wozniak was captivated by Jobs’ vision to “put a computer in the hands of everyday people.”
Taking Risks 大畜 卦辭: 利貞，不家食，吉，利涉大川。 In order to raise the money they needed, Wozniak sold his HP 65 calculator for $500, though the buyer ended up stiffing him for half of that. For his part, Jobs sold his Volkswagen bus for $1,500. Paul Terrell at Byte Shop agreed to order 50 computers. They needed about $15,000 worth of parts. Allen Baum father agreed to loan them $5,000. Ron Wayne, the middle-aged engineer at Atari who had once started a slot machine company, was the third partner of Apple Computer founded April 1, 1976. Wayne then got cold feet in a week (bought out with$800). If he kept his 10% stake, at the end of 2010 it would have been worth approximately $2.6 billion.
Packaging the Products http://www.pophistorydig.com/?tag=apple-computer-ipo Apple I, 1976, Initially conceived by Steve Wozniak (a.k.a. "Woz") as a build-it-yourself kit computer, Apple I was initially rejected by his bosses at Hewlett-Packard. Undeterred, he offered it to Silicon Valley's Homebrew Computer Club and, together with his friend Steve Jobs, managed to sell 50 pre-built models to The Byte Shop in Mountain View, California. The suggested retail price: $666. Though sales were low, the machine paved the way for the smash success of the Apple II. http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1956593_2029024,00.html
1977 Apple II Counter culture met high-tech business
Ad for Apple II Personal Computer, Home Computer
他山之石，可以攻玉 Good artists copy; great artists steal. 《詩經·小雅·鶴鳴》：「他山之石，可以攻玉。」 • Apple II Case Design • While haunting the appliance aisles at Macy’s, he was struck by the Cuisinart food processors and decided that he wanted a sleek case made of light molded plastic.
Killer App http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-2539790754467363791# PBS.Triumph.of.the.Nerds.1of3 around 40m VisiCalc (Spreadsheet) VisiCalc: Visual Calculator, The First KillerApp for Apple II 1979 Software Arts, Inc. released VisiCalc, the first commercial spreadsheet program for personal computers.
Apple IPO, 1980 On December 12, 1980, Apple launched the Initial Public Offering of its stock to the investing public. When Apple went public, it generated more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly created more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history. Apple went public on December 12, 1980 at $22.00 per share. It went to $29 the first day. The stock has split three times since the IPO so on a split-adjusted basis the IPO share price was $2.75. At age twenty-five, Steve Jobs was worth $256 million.
Taking the Risk and Striking It Rich Monday, Feb. 15, 1982 A new breed of risk takers is betting on the high-technology future http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,925279,00.html#ixzz1hVkF5ywo
Adult Supervision: Taming the Power of the Great What's the difference between Apple and the Boy Scouts? The Boy Scouts have adult supervision. 大畜卦 六四 童牛之牿，元吉。 President of PepsiCo John Sculley CEO of Apple on April 8, 1983, until leaving in 1993. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/01/dayintech_0124
Noble Cause 1984 New York Central Park Great companies must have a noble cause. Then it’s the leader’s job to transform that noble cause into such an inspiring vision that it will attract the most talented people in the world to want to join it. Do you want to sell sugared water for the rest of your life or do you want to come with me and change the world?
Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) laser printing, Ethernet, the modern personal computer, graphical user interface (GUI), object-oriented programming, etc. PARC founder Jacob Goldman In return for the right to buy US$1,000,000 of pre-IPO stock, Xerox granted Apple Computer three days access to the PARC facilities. Jobs had marveled at PARC technology during a visit to the center in 1979. “You’re sitting on a gold mine. I can’t believe Xerox is not taking advantage of this [the graphical user interface (GUI)].”
Xerox Alto: 1973 ‘Why aren’t you doing anything with this? This is the greatest thing. This is revolutionary!’ ”
Macintosh - 1984 The Macintosh was the world’s first computer with beautiful fonts and typography.
GUI and Mouse http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/05/16/110516fa_fact_gladwell Doug Engelbart of the Augmentation Research Center in Palo Alto developed the computer mouse and graphical user interfaces.
Xerox PARC and Apple Macintosh Following PARC the first GUI-centric computer operating model was the Xerox 8010 Star Information System in 1981, followed by the Apple Lisa (which presented the concept of menu bar as well as window controls) in 1983, the Apple Macintosh 128K in 1984, and the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga in 1985.
A Mighty Mouse SRI had licensed the mouse patent to Apple for something like $40,000." http://www.stanfordalumni.org/news/magazine/2002/marapr/features/mouse.html the Xerox mouse had three buttons, was complicated, cost $300/$400 apiece, and didn’t roll around smoothly Jobs went to a local industrial design firm, Hovey-Kelley Design (i.e., IDEO now), and told one of its founders, Dean Hovey, that he wanted a simple single button model that cost $15, and he want to be able to use it on Formica and his blue jeans. “take a piece of technology developed by some of Silicon Valley’s greatest minds, dramatically improve its reliability and cut its price by more than 90 percent.”
Design of the Mouse: IDEO • The mouse, Hovey says, “had the right balance of • mechanical design, • ergonomic design, • software design • and electronic design • that really mapped well with the generalist, mini-da Vincis that Hovey-Kelley had. Even down to the tactile aspect of the click.”
Design via Prototyping Hovey estimated their consulting fee at thirty-five dollars an hour; the whole project cost perhaps a hundred thousand dollars. http://www.stanfordalumni.org/news/magazine/2002/marapr/features/mouse.html Construction play Thinking with Your Hands Low-resolution prototype
Quick Prototyping IDEO
Reed College Lloyd J. Reynolds In 1972, Steve Jobs dropped out of Reed College in Portland after just one semester. He stayed another 18 months to “drop in” to those classes he enjoyed, like calligraphy. Calligraphy didn’t have any obvious practical application in his life but it would come back to Jobs when he created the Mac.
晉 王羲之 快雪時晴帖 羲之頓首。快雪時晴。佳想安善。未果為結。力不次。王羲之頓首。山陰張侯。
Connecting the Dots “Creativity is just connecting things.” “[Y]ou can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future.” • Obtain dots • Connect dots backward
Usefulness of Giant Gourds 善用大小：善用無用之用，小兵可立大功 惠子謂莊子曰：「魏王貽我大瓠之種，我樹之成而實五石，以盛水漿，其堅不能自舉也。剖之以為瓢，則瓠落無所容。非不呺然大也，吾為其無用而掊之。」
Secret Formula for Hand Lotion 惠子謂莊子曰：「魏王貽我大瓠之種，我樹之成而實五石，以盛水漿，其堅不能自舉也。剖之以為瓢，則瓠落無所容。非不呺然大也，吾為其無用而掊之。」 莊子曰：「夫子固拙於用大矣。宋人有善為不龜手之藥者，世世以洴澼絖為事。客聞之，請買其方百金。聚族而謀曰：『我世世為洴澼絖，不過數金；今一朝而鬻技百金，請與之。』客得之以說吳王。越有難，吳王使之將，冬與越人水戰，大敗越人，裂地而封之。能不龜手，一也；或以封，或不免於洴澼絖，則所用之異也。今子有五石之瓠，何不慮以為大樽而浮乎江湖，而憂其瓠落無所容？則夫子猶有蓬之心也夫！」《莊子‧逍遙遊》
Creativity = Humanities & The Sciences + Strong Personality The creativity that can occur when a feel for both the humanities and the sciences combine in one strong personality …it will be a key to creating innovative economies in the twenty-first century. - Walter Issacson http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZeOhnTuq2I
3 Ts Approach It's better to be a pirate than to join the navy. • Talent, Technology, and Tolerance • Talented people seek an environment open to differences. • Richard Florida, Rise of the Creative Class in 2002. Steve Jobs with the Macintosh team
1982, photographed by Diana Walker At Steve Jobs’ home in Woodside, 1982: He was such a perfectionist that he had trouble buying furniture.
What is the connection of this picture with “Apple” Robert Friedland was charismatic and a bit of a con man and could bend situations to his very strong will. He was mercurial, sure of himself, a little dictatorial.
Vision to Execution …those who did make the future happen deserve double and triple credit. They not only saw the future, but also trusted their vision to follow through, and translated vision to execution. 乾知大始 坤作成物
Why? The Ouster of Steve Jobs from Apple 亢龍有悔 物極必反 “The ancient Greeks had a word for Steve's behavior. They called it hubris, the insolent pride that humans exhibited when they thought they could challenge the gods. The gods' response was always the same: to strike down the arrogant human with a bolt from the heavens.” Customers disliked the idea that it was not expandable, that it had a small screen, and that there was no color. Without useful software products for Mac, the Mac was seen as a toy, a flaky machine that you could love, but you wouldn't buy. No Lotus 123…. “Steve did his market research by looking into the mirror every morning.” Floppy disk swapping problem. Did not sell well to office usage.
Pixzar 彖曰: 大畜， 剛健篤實輝光，日新其德， 剛上而尚賢。 • 1955 Fall Steve Jobs left Apple. • 1986 LucasFilm computer division owned by George Lucas: • Hardware: Pixar Image Computer • Software: RenderMan • Animated Contents: Short films
Tin Toy • He offered to pay Lucas $5 million plus invest another $5 million to capitalize the division as a stand-alone company. Own 80% of the company. • 1988 Tin Toy, ($300,000 personal check from Steve) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=se3_3GYEQ-M&feature=related • “All I ask of you, John, is to make it great!” to Lasseter • 1988 Academy Award for animated short films, the first computer-generated film to do so. • n April 1990 Jobs sold Pixar's hardware division, including all proprietary hardware technology and imaging software, to Vicom Systems
唯變所適 窮則變，變則通，通則久。 1991 another round of investment by Steve Jobs, total $50 millions. (Half of money of Apple stock sold by Steve Jobs.) 42 employees only. Looking back, Jobs said that, had he known more, he would have focused on animation sooner and not worried about pushing the company’s hardware or software applications. On the other hand, had he known the hardware and software would never be profitable, he would not have taken over Pixar. “Life kind of snookered me into doing that, and perhaps it was for the better.”
Selling Pixar?功虧一簣 Jobs contemplated selling Pixar. Pixar made a $26 million deal with Disney to produce three computer-animated feature films, the first of which was Toy Story. Only after confirming that Disney would distribute Toy Story for the 1995 holiday season did he decide to give it another chance. 為山九仞，功虧一簣。 --《尚書·旅獒》 子曰：「譬如為山，未成一簣，止，吾止也；譬如平地，雖覆一簣，進，吾往也。」-- 《論語·子罕》
The Story of “Toy Story” 漢 樂府民歌。又稱《古怨歌》 縈縈白兔，東走西顧。 衣不如新，人不如故。 Nov. 19, 1995 Toy Story premium and Nov. 22 formal release. “Everyone has had the traumatic childhood experience of losing a toy. Our story takes the toy’s point of view as he loses and tries to regain the single thing most important to him: to be played with by children. This is the reason for the existence of all toys. It is the emotional foundation of their existence.”
Not for the Money??? Pixar held its initial public offering on November 29, 1995, and the company's stock was priced at US$22 per share. 2249 $39 at the end of the day. Steve Bobs, owned 80% and which worth1.2 billions (50 times ROI, and 5 times Steve earned from Apple’s IPO) “There’s no yacht in my future,” “I’ve never done this for the money.”
NeXT Sculley referred to Job as Catshire Cat
Apple Bought NeXT Apple were less than 90 days from being insolvent when Jobs became iCEO. (9/1997) Apple bought NeXt for $400 millions or so. Mac OS Beta 2000. December 20, 1996—in front of 250 cheering employees at Apple headquarters. Amelio did as Jobs had requested and described his new role as merely that of a part-time advisor.
Focus Apple would drop its 20+ product lines and had 4 left. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0BHPtoTctDY&feature=player_embedded Jobs said. “I couldn’t figure it out.” He finally began asking simple questions, like, “Which ones do I tell my friends to buy?”
Focus Steve Jobs had the power to focus like a laser beam. “Deciding what not to do is as important as deciding what to do. …. That’s true for companies, and it’s true for products.” His [Steve Jobs] job had been to prune the apple trees so that they would stay strong, and that became a metaphor for his pruning at Apple.
我專而敵分 孫子兵法虛實篇 我專而敵分 故形人而我無形，則我專而敵分， 我專為一，敵分為十，是以十攻其一也。 則我眾而敵寡，能以眾擊寡， 則我之所與戰者，約矣。
忍辱 尺蠖之屈，以求信也； 龍蛇之蟄，以存身也。 信,伸也。 1997年Mac World會場上Microsoft Bill Gates 透過衛星轉播與Steve Job宣佈投資合作計劃
Think Different Here’s to the crazy ones. The misfits. The rebels. The troublemakers. The round pegs in the square holes. The ones who see things differently. They’re not fond of rules. And they have no respect for the status quo. You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them. About the only thing you can’t do is ignore them. Because they change things. They push the human race forward. While some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius. Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones who do. • Steve Jobs 原音所唸的廣告詞(不是1997年在電視上用的版本) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rwsuXHA7RA • http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMzExMzIxODA0.html
iMac Case Ives & his team studied how to make translucent colors look enticing in a jelly bean factory
The First iMac Introduction - Steve Jobs Head of Design Jony Ive and head of Hardware Jon Rubistein with the lifesavers iMacs Around the back, we have a great handle here. The back of this thing looks better than the front of the another guy by the way.