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  1. Knowledge Management Systems: Development and ApplicationsPart I: Overview and Related Fields Hsinchun Chen, Ph.D. McClelland Professor, Director, Artificial Intelligence Lab and Hoffman E-Commerce Lab The University of Arizona Founder, Knowledge Computing Corporation Acknowledgement: NSF DLI1, DLI2, NSDL, DG, ITR, IDM, CSS, NIH/NLM, NCI, NIJ, CIA, NCSA, HP, SAP 美國亞歷桑那大學, 陳炘鈞博士

  2. My Background: ( A Mixed Bag!) BS NCTU Management Science, 1981 MBA SUNY Buffalo Finance, MS, MIS Ph.D. NYU Information System, Minor: CS Dissertation: “An AI Approach to the Design Of Online Information Retrieval Systems” (GEAC Online Cataloging System) Assistant/Associate/Full/Chair Professor, University of Arizona, MIS Department Scientific Counselor, National Library of Medicine, USA

  3. My Background: (A Mixed Bag!) Founder/Director, Artificial Intelligent Lab, 1990 Founder/Director, Hoffman eCommerce Lab, 2000 PIs: NSF CISE DLI-1 DLI-2, NSDL, DG, DARPA, NIJ, NIH Associate Editors: JASIST, DSS, ACM TOIS, IJEB Conference/program Co-hairs: ICADL 1998-2003, China DL 2002, NSF/NIJ ISI 2003, 2004, JCDL 2004, ISI 2004 Industry Consulting: HP, IBM, AT&T, SGI, Microsoft, SAP Founder, Knowledge Computing Corporation, 2000

  4. Knowledge Management: Overview

  5. Knowledge Management Overview What is Knowledge Management Data, Information, and Knowledge Why Knowledge Management? Knowledge Management Processes

  6. Data: 1980s Factual Structured, numeric Oracle, Sybase, DB2 Information: 1990s Factual Yahoo!, Excalibur, Unstructured, textual Verity, Documentum Knowledge: 2000s Inferential, sensemaking, decision making Multimedia ??? Unit of Analysis

  7. According to Alter (1996), Tobin (1996), and Beckman (1999): Data: Facts, images, or sounds (+interpretation+meaning =) Information: Formatted, filtered, and summarized data (+action+application =) Knowledge: Instincts, ideas, rules, and procedures that guide actions and decisions Data, Information and Knowledge:

  8. Ontologies, hierarchies, and subject headings Knowledge management systems and practices: knowledge maps Digital libraries, search engines, web mining, text mining, data mining, CRM, eCommerce Semantic web, multilingual web, multimedia web, and wireless web Application and Societal Relevance :

  9. The Third Wave of Net Evolution 2010 ARPANET Internet “SemanticWeb” Function Server Access Info Access Knowledge Access 1995 Unit Server File/Homepage Concepts 1975 2000 Example Email WWW: “World Wide Wait” Concept Protocols 1985 1965 Company IBM Microsoft/Netscape ???

  10. Knowledge Management Definition “The system and managerial approach to collecting, processing, and organizing enterprise-specific knowledge assets for business functions and decision making.”

  11. “… making high-value corporate information and knowledge easily available to support decision making at the lowest, broadest possible levels …” Personnel Turn-over Organizational Resistance Manual Top-down Knowledge Creation Information Overload Knowledge Management Challenges

  12. Research Community NSF / DARPA / NASA, Digital Library Initiative I & II, NSDL ($120M) NSF, Digital Government Initiative ($60M) NSF, Knowledge Networking Initiative ($50M) NSF, Information Technology Research ($300M) Business Community Intellectual Capital, Corporate Memory, Knowledge Chain, Competitive Intelligence Knowledge Management Landscape

  13. Enabling Technologies: Information Retrieval (Excalibur, Verity, Oracle Context) Electronic Document Management (Documentum, PC DOCS) Internet/Intranet (Yahoo!, Excite) Groupware (Lotus Notes, MS Exchange, Ventana) Consulting and System Integration: Best practices, human resources, organizational development, performance metrics, methodology, framework, ontology (Delphi, E&Y, Arthur Andersen, AMS, KPMG) Knowledge Management Foundations

  14. Process perspective (management and behavior): consulting practices, methodology, best practices, e-learning, culture/reward, existing IT  new information, old IT, new but manual process Information perspective (information and library sciences): content management, manual ontologies  new information, manual process Knowledge Computing perspective (text mining, artificial intelligence): automated knowledge extraction, thesauri, knowledge maps  new IT, new knowledge, automated process Knowledge Management Perspectives:

  15. Human Resources Cultural Best Practices Databases Learning / Education ePortals Consulting Methodology Tech Foundation Infrastructure Content/Info Structure Content Mgmt Email KMS Analysis Ontology Notes User Modeling Search Engine Data/Text Mining Web Mining KM Perspectives

  16. Dataware Technologies (1) Identify the Business Problem (2) Prepare for Change (3) Create a KM Team (4) Perform the Knowledge Audit and Analysis (5) Define the Key Features of the Solution (6) Implement the Building Blocks for KM (7) Link Knowledge to People

  17. Anderson Consulting (1) Acquire (2) Create (3) Synthesize (4) Share (5) Use to Achieve Organizational Goals (6) Environment Conducive to Knowledge Sharing

  18. Ernst & Young (1) Knowledge Generation (2) Knowledge Representation (3) Knowledge Codification (4) Knowledge Application

  19. Reason for Adopting KM Retain expertise of personnel 51.9% Increase customer satisfaction 43.1% Improve profits, grow revenues 37.5% Support e-business initiatives 24.7% Shorten product development cycles 23% Provide project workspace 11.7% Knowledge Management and IDC May 2001

  20. Business Uses Of KM Initiative Capture and share best practices 77.7% Provide training, corporate learning 62.4% Manage customer relationships 58% Deliver competitive intelligence 55.7% Provide project workspace 31.4% Manage legal, intellectual property 31.4% Continue

  21. Leader Of KM Initiative Knowledge Management and IDC May 2001

  22. Planned Length Of Project 6.5% Don’t know 22.3% Indefinite 17.3% Less than 1 year 5 years or more 3.5% 1.1% 4 to 5 years 3.2% 32.4% 1 to 2 years 13.6% 2 to 3 years 3 to 4 years Knowledge Management and IDC May 2001

  23. Implementation Challenges Employees have no time for KM 41% Current culture does not encourage sharing 36.6% Lack of understanding of KM and Benefits 29.5% Inability to measure financial benefits of KM 24.5% Lack of Skill in KM techniques 22.7% Organization’s processes are not designed for KM 22.2% Continue

  24. Implementation Challenges Lack of funding for KM 21.8% Lack of incentives, rewards to share 19.9% Have not yet begun implementing KM 18.7% Lack of appropriate technology 17.4% Lack of commitment from senior management 13.9% No challenges encountered 4.3% Knowledge Management and IDC May 2001

  25. Types of Software Purchased Messaging e-mail 44.7% Knowledge base, repository 40.7% Document management 39.2% Data warehousing 34.6% Groupware 33.1% Search engines 32.3% Continue

  26. Types of Software Purchased Web-based training 23.8% Workflow 23.8% Enterprise information portal 23.2% Business rules management 11.6% Knowledge Management and IDC May 2001

  27. Spending On IT Services For KM 15.3% Training 27.8% Consulting Planning 13.7% Maintenance 27% Implementation 15.3% Operations, outsourcing Knowledge Management and IDC May 2001

  28. Software Budget Allotments Enterprise information portal 35.6% Document management 26.2% Groupware 24.4% Workflow 22.9% Data warehousing 19.3% Search engines 13.0% Continue

  29. Software Budget Allotments Web-based training 11.4% Messaging e-mail 10.8% Other 29.2% Knowledge Management and IDC May 2001

  30. Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) Characteristics of KMS The Industry and the Market Major Vendors and Systems

  31. KM Architecture (Source: GartnerGroup) Web UI Web Browser Knowledge Maps Enterprise Knowledge Architecture Knowledge Retrieval Conceptual Physical KR Functions Text and Database Drivers Application Index Database Indexes Text Indexes “Workgroup” Applications Databases Applications Distributed Object Models Intranet and Extranet Network Services Platform Services

  32. KR Functions Knowledge Retrieval Level (Source: GartnerGroup) Concept “Yellow Pages” Retrieved Knowledge Clustering — categorization “table of contents” Semantic Networks “index” Dictionaries Thesauri Linguistic analysis Data extraction Collaborative filters Communities Trusted advisor Expert identification Semantic Value “Recommendation” Collaboration

  33. Knowledge Retrieval Vendor Direction(Source: GartnerGroup) Market Target Newbies: IR Leaders: • grapeVINE • Sovereign Hill • CompassWare • Intraspect • KnowledgeX • WiseWire • Lycos • Autonomy • Perspecta Verity Fulcrum Excalibur Dataware Knowledge Retrieval NewBies IR Leaders Niche Players: • IDI • Oracle • Open Text • Folio • IBM • InText • PCDOCS • Documentum Lotus Netscape* Technology Innovation Microsoft Niche Players * Not yet marketed Content Experience

  34. KM Software Vendors Challengers Leaders Lotus * Microsoft * Dataware * Autonomy* * Verity * IBM * Excalibur Ability to Execute Netscape * Documentum* PCDOCS/* Fulcrum IDI* Inference* OpenText* Lycos/InMagic* CompassWare* GrapeVINE* KnowledgeX* * InXight WiseWire* SovereignHill* Semio* *Intraspect Visionaries Niche Players Completeness of Vision

  35. U. Mass: Sovereign Hill MIT Media Lab: Perspecta Xerox PARC: InXight Batelle: ThemeMedia U. Waterloo: OpenText Cambridge U. Autonomy U. Arizona: Knowledge Computing Corporation (KCC) From Federal Research to Commercial Start-ups

  36. Structured Manual Human-driven Unstructured System-aided Data/Info-driven Two Approaches to Codify Knowledge Top-Down Approach Bottom-Up Approach

  37. Knowledge Management Related Field: Search Engine (Source: Jan Peterson and William Chang, Excite)

  38. Basic Architectures: Search Log 20M queries/day Spider Web SE Spam Index SE Browser SE Freshness 24x7 Quality results 800M pages?

  39. Basic Architectures: Directory Url submission Surfing Ontology Web SE Browser SE SE Reviewed Urls

  40. Web HTML data Hyperlinked Directed, disconnected graph Dynamic and static data Estimated 2 billion indexible pages Freshness How often are pages revisited? Spidering

  41. Size from 50M to 150M to 3B urls 50 to 100% indexing overhead 200 to 400GB indices Representation Fields, meta-tags and content NLP: stemming? Indexing

  42. Augmented Vector-space Ranked results with Boolean filtering Quality-based re-ranking Based on hyperlink data or user behavior Spam Manipulation of content to improve placement Search

  43. Short expressions of information need 2.3 words on average Relevance overload is a key issue Users typically only view top results Search is a high volume business Yahoo! 50M queries/day Excite 30M queries/day Infoseek 15M queries/day Queries

  44. Alta Vista: within site search, machine translation

  45. Manual categorization and rating Labor intensive 20 to 50 editors High quality, but low coverage 200-500K urls Browsable ontology Open Directory is a distributed solution Directory

  46. Yahoo: manual ontology (200 ontologists)

  47. Search Engine Watch www.searchenginewatch.com “Analysis of a Very Large Alta Vista Query Log”; Silverstein et al. www.research.digital.com/SRC “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine”; Brin and Page google.stanford.edu/long321.htm WWW conferences: www13.org Web Resources

  48. Newswire Newsgroups Specialized services (Deja) Information extraction Shopping catalog Events; recipes, etc. Special Collections

  49. Non-indexible content Behind passwords, firewalls Dynamic content Often searchable through local interface Network of distributed search resources How to access? Ask Jeeves! The Hidden Web

  50. Manipulation of content to affect ranking Bogus meta tags Hidden text Jump pages tuned for each search engine Add Url is a spammer’s tool 99% of submissions are spam It’s an arms race Spam