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Fish and Wildlife in America
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  1. Fish and Wildlife in America Original Power Point Created by Linda Rist Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2002

  2. Renewable resources • usually taken for granted • we have developed an attitude that there will always be more • Animals fall into this category

  3. Renewable resources • ability to reproduce • many species have died out • management of wildlife resources is important

  4. Wildlife • living things that are neither human or domesticated • especially birds, mammals, fishes • includes both plant and animal life

  5. Wildlife • we will concentrate on higher life forms • vertebrates • lower forms of plant and animal life are also important in maintaining a balance

  6. United States • estimated that the continental U.S. contains over 2,300 different vertebrate species. • Game animals make up only a small portion of this number

  7. Early Pioneers • depended on these birds, mammals and fish to survive • meat supplied food • skins used for shelter and clothing • oil kept firearms usable

  8. Early Pioneers • oil used to light cabins • with out wildlife resources the wilderness would have never been conquered.

  9. World Fur Trade • America was well established • at the cost of wildlife • trappers took the animals faster than they could multiply • treated the resources as a crop

  10. Wildlife killed • many because they appeared hostile • bears, wildcats - danger to people • many species were killed because they threatened the safety of domestic animals

  11. Wrongly accused • hawks were thought to kill chickens • mass destruction of hawks took place

  12. hawks • stomach contents found to contain • 40% insects, 30% frogs • 23% rats and mice, 3.4% small birds • 2% aquatic wildlife

  13. stomach contents • .5% game birds • .5% rabbits

  14. Red Tail hawks • poultry parts were discovered but those parts were only a small percentage of the diet • original premise was unfounded.

  15. Rare or Endangered • few in number • 1966 Endangered Species Preservation Act • 1969 - Endangered Species Conservation Act

  16. Congressional Acts • protect fish and wildlife on a worldwide basis • protection and conservation of species of native fish known to be threatened with extinction

  17. 1969 amendment • dealt with importation of endangered species into the US from anywhere in the world • called for formation of an endangered species list

  18. 1969 amendment • list is updated every 5 years • 1970 the list contained 133 species of mammals • 124 birds, 24 reptiles • 25 fish, 1 mollusk

  19. Extinct species • no longer exist • outside of museums or photographs

  20. Rare species • one that is no longer common • in in danger of becoming extinct • zoos may hold the last examples of the species

  21. Extinct Species • Passenger Pigeon • at one time the population was thought to be in the billions • flew in enormous flocks • John Audubon estimated on flock he saw at over one billion

  22. Passenger Pigeon • large flocks would strip all the foliage • leaving the area bare • people declared war on the birds • killing all they could find

  23. Passenger Pigeon • captured the young and killed them, shipped them to cities as food • flocks soon disappeared • NY, PA and MA passed laws to protect them

  24. Passenger Pigeon • laws were too late • birds held in captivity would not breed • last known passenger pigeon died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914

  25. Passenger Pigeon • body of last passenger pigeon is on display at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC

  26. Extinct Species • Carolina Parakeet • Heath Hen • Labrador Duck

  27. Carolina Parakeet • sought for their colorful feathers which were used in women’s hats • final extinction came in 1914

  28. Heath Hen • relative of the prairie chicken • used for food by early settlers • bird sanctuary set up in the early 1900’s

  29. Heath Hen • Fire swept through the sanctuary • a few males survived • last bird died in 1932

  30. Labrador Duck • became extinct before anyone realized it was gone • most birds were killed for their feathers which were used to stuff pillows

  31. Endangered Mammals • 133 on the endangered list distributed by the US Dept. of the Interior

  32. Common endangered • big horn sheep, polar bears, • key deer, wolves • mountain lions • most hunted extensively without considering extinction

  33. Big Horn Sheep • threatened by extinction from two sides • humans and disease • large sheep, relatives of domestic sheep

  34. Big Horn Sheep • live high in the mountains • above the tree line • 6-7 feet in length • have long curved horns

  35. Big Horn Sheep • are hunted for trophies • many carcasses are found with head removed • very alert • are under protection of game laws • some are being kept in wildlife reserves

  36. Polar Bears • important source of food for Eskimos • fur is used for clothing • meat is used for food • airplane hunting is being used to kill vast amounts each year

  37. Polar Bears • Females produce only 2 young each year • stay with mother for 10 months • Canada and Soviet Union have laws to protect these animals

  38. Key Deer • smallest white tail deer • killed for trophies • strict laws prohibiting hunting • population increased from 30 to 300 because of wildlife refuges

  39. Wolves • wolves resemble dogs • hunt in packs at night • pack consists of young and old • female bears 5-14 pups in a den guarded by the male • male and female mate for life

  40. Wolves • feed on domestic livestock • there have been bounties on wolves • now bounties can only exist if the population endanger the deer population

  41. Mountain Lions • has been eliminated in eastern US • hunt at night • feed mainly on deer • humans hunt frequently • are hunted for skins and heads. • Hunting is not allowed in national parks, but are hunted in forest areas

  42. Endangered Birds • there are 124 birds on the endangered species list. • The most common are the whooping crane, bald eagle, ivory-billed woodpecker, and prairie chicken.

  43. Whooping Crane • migrate from Texas to Canada each year • many are hunted during migration • nest up to two young per year • the young fly south with adults

  44. Whooping Crane • when birds return to Arkansas Wildlife Refuge each year they are counted. • The count has steadily increased • at the present time there are only 51 whooping cranes

  45. Bald Eagles • Has a white head and tail • bald eagles feed on dead salmon • bounties have been places for their talons • are now protected by law

  46. Bald Eagles • $500 fine for tampering with an eagle or its nest • the number to bald eagles continues to drop • take young 4 years to mature • can live up to 100 years

  47. Ivory-billed Woodpecker • largest woodpecker in North America • lives in southern states • nests in tops of old forests • eat insects and grubs found in old and dying trees

  48. Ivory-billed Woodpecker • are being held in secret reserves and one day they will be reintroduced to the public

  49. Prairie Chickens • is a type of grouse • Indian dances imitated their mating dances • oil drilling and drought dwindled the population • in 1959 the Prairie Chicken Foundation was formed to protect them

  50. Endangered Fish • there are 25 fish on endangered species list • 2 species are located in Mammoth Caves and Death Valley (pupfish and blind fish)