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End-user attitudes towards EDM use in project work A case study of the Kamppi Center project. M.Sc. thesis research methods and results. 29 March 2006 Mathias Hjelt Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration. Research objectives.

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end user attitudes towards edm use in project work a case study of the kamppi center project

End-user attitudes towards EDM use in project workA case study of the Kamppi Center project

M.Sc. thesis research methods and results

29 March 2006

Mathias Hjelt

Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration

research objectives
Research objectives
  • Explore end-user attitudes towards EDM usage in a large construction project:
    • How do users across different segments of the project organisation perceive the benefits and challenges of EDM use?
  • Propose a model describing factors affecting individual EDM adoption
case kamppi center
Case: Kamppi Center
  • 500 million EUR construction project including:
      • a shopping centre
      • underground bus and cargo terminals
      • 12,500 m² of office space
      • 5,700 m ² of residential apartments
      • parking facilities
  • SRV Viitoset appointed design & build contractor
      • 3 architectural offices
      • ~ 20 structural / technical design offices
      • Hundreds of subcontractors
case kamppi center1
Case: Kamppi Center
  • Electronic document management in the project:
    • ASP / web based Raksanet
    • Used by 340 users from 90 organisations
    • 17,000 documents organised in 1700 folders
    • Mainly DWG, PLT, PDF, Word, Excel
    • Automatic paper copy distribution
ict adoption theory
ICT adoption theory

Adoption decisions in an organization(Gallivan 2001)



and intentions

for change


to adopt









Availability of





ict adoption theory1
ICT adoption theory

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology(Venkatesh et al 2003)

  • The UTAUT model is based on previous frameworks: innovation diffusion theory, TRA, TAM, MPCU, etc..
  • Intention and actual use influenced by:
    • effort expectancy
    • perfomance expectancy
    • social influence
    • facilitating conditions
ict adoption theory2
ICT adoption theory

Updated IS Success Model(DeLone & McLean 2003)

  • User’s intention to use is influenced by three dimensions of quality:
    • system quality
    • information quality
    • support quality
research design
Research design
  • Phase 2
  • Objective: gain deeper understanding
  • Qualitative
  • 5 users + 1 expert
  • Sample based on phase 1



  • Phase 1
  • Objective: “draw the big picture”
  • Quantitative
  • Entire user base


Log file


  • 19 Likert-scale questions on the topics of:
    • Respondent background (e.g. previous EDM experience)
    • Support quality (received training, support, guidelines)
    • System quality (e.g. reliability, functionality, ease of use)
    • Information quality (contents of the EDM, structure)
    • EDM vs other channels of communication
    • Overall perception of benefits
  • 1 free-text comment
  • Web based implementation
    • Covering letter sent by e-mail to all active users (n=282)
    • Each respondent given a unique URL in the e-mail
      • http://kamppi.iterate.fi/KABCDE
      • The link contains an ID which helps tracking responses
    • Answer required on all quantitative questions
      • Effect: 20 partial responses  13 complete ones
ensuring a satisfactory response rate
Ensuring a satisfactory response rate
  • Cover letter credibility
    • From: SRV Viitoset’s director of planning
  • Low effort
    • Questionnaire can be completed in 5 minutes
    • All questions on page – you see what you’re in for
  • Incentives
    • Non-monetary: ”get your voice heard”
    • Monetary: 2 x 100 € gift certificates
  • Timing
    • post-holidays, Monday a.m.
  • Follow-up / reminder
    • ”You still have a chance to give your input / win a gift certificate”
response statistics
Response statistics
  • Respondents:
    • 282 intended recipients
    • 13 unreachable (invalid email addresses, over-quota mailboxes etc)
    • 167 actual responses
    • Active response rate 167/(282-13) = 62 %
  • 5 end-user interviews
    • 2 project management
    • 1 architect
    • 1 subcontractor
    • 1 city planning
  • 1 expert interview
previous edm experience
Previous EDM experience
  • 53 % were first-time EDM users
attitude towards edm
Attitude towards EDM
  • At the outset of the project:
    • Experienced EDM users were more confident regarding benefits than first-time EDM users
    • Subcontractors were the least experienced; thus also the most sceptical
  • At the end of the project:
    • A majority reported that their attitude had improved
    • Subcontractors reported the biggest improvement!
perceived benefits of edm usage
Perceived benefits of EDM usage
  • Most respondents considered EDM essential in a project of this size and complexity
other channels of communication
Other channels of communication
  • Still the use of parallel channels was considered a major source of stress and extra work!
perceived barriers to edm use
Perceived barriers to EDM use
  • Why didn’t EDM replace other channels of communication?
    • Using the system was considered slow and cumbersome - sending a file by email much easier and faster
    • Users did not receive enough training or guidelines – the complexity of the contents was perceived as the biggest challenge to getting started
key findings
Key findings
  • Users quick to revert to other channels if EDM not perceived as easy to use or useful
  • Two aspects influence ease-of-use and usefulness:
    • System quality: The technical aspects of using the software
    • Information quality: The actual contents, structure, meta-data practices, etc
  • Users need training and guidelines regarding both aspects!
    • Self-learning not always viable
    • Learning from colleagues not always viable
    • Thus, formal training should be organised

Service provided

End users

Dimensions of quality

Acceptance factors

Individual properties

System quality

- functionality

- usability

Effort expectancy

Involvement in project

Involvement in the information process

Information accessibility

Performance expectancy

IT skills & personality

Information quality

- up to date, accurate

- complete

- well structured

Social influence

Company properties

Management attitude

Support quality

- training

- guidelines


Facilitating conditions

Support from collegues


User satisfaction

evaluation of research methods
Evaluation of research methods
  • Web-based questionnaire successful, but...
    • respondents skewed towards more active users
    • difficult trade-off between detail and likelihood of getting a broad response (4-point Likert scales perhaps too coarse, certain questions ambiguous..)
  • Matching of quantitative and qualitative data
    • quantitative answers appeared largely positive; free-text comments and interview responses much more critical
  • Number of interviews...