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Fat Structure. Fatty acids are either saturated, monounsaturated (contain one C=C double bond) or polyunsaturated (contain two or more C=C double bonds).

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Fat Structure


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fat structure
Fat Structure

Fatty acids are either saturated, monounsaturated (contain one C=C double bond) or polyunsaturated (contain two or more C=C double bonds)

Saturated fatty acids stack closely and are more solid. Unsaturated fatty acids are more fluid. “Hydrogenating” unsaturated fatty acids makes them more rigid.

slide3

Trans fats “look” more like saturated fats.

Trans fats “look” more like saturated fats.

Polyunsaturated > monosaturated

“Partially hydrogenated” fats.

“Attempt” to hydrogenate 4 cis double bonds succeeds with 2, leaves one alone, creates one trans double bond.

slide5

Transition: Top Ten Lessons I Learned In College

10. Success is 1% inspiration and 99% cramming the night before the exam.

9. Roommates can be pretty harsh if you're still sleeping with your Big Bird doll.

8. Laughing at the professor’s jokes brings up the curve.

7. The best way to learn biology is in the woods behind Heylar House.

6. On Microsoft Word, if you drag down the format window and click on paragraph, adjusting the line spacing can make your papers look a lot longer.

5. Do your laundry every six months, whether you need it or not, (or take it home and have Dad do it.)

4. Do I have to think of another?

3. Um...sorry, I'm drawing another blank.

2. My parents wasted about 80 grand.1. If you major in some lightweight field, goof off and get bad grades, you could become rich like that dropout Bill Gates.

slide7

Outline

  • Video
  • Uses in foods
  • Structure and function
  • “Artificial Sweeteners” Aspartame Smear
  • Starches, Pectins and Gums
  • Fiber and Diet
  • Metabolism of Sugars
  • Energy
  • Diet and Exercise
  • Production of honey, sugar, maple syrup and molasses
slide8

Uses of Carbohydrates in Foods

  • Sweetener
  • Structure
  • Bulk (sugar substitutes)
  • Water Binding
  • “Mouth feel”
  • Color
  • Nutrition
  • - Calories
  • - Soluble and Insoluble fiber
  • - Intestinal transit time, cholesterol bile binding
  • Special uses of gums, starches and pectins: gelation, viscosity, emulsification
slide10

High Fructose Corn Syrup, What is it? How is it made? Is it natural? Is it good for you?

Fructose

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose

Starch

Sucrose

Fructose

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose

Fructose

Glucose

Glucose

Fructose

Glucose

Glucose

Corn Syrup

High Fructose Corn Syrup

slide11

Attributes of High Fructose Corn Syrup

  • Its liquid form and dust-free nature make it easy to handle.
  • The glucose and fructose in HFCS contribute to the desirable brown colors in baked.
  • HFCS has greater water binding capacity than sucrose.
  • HFCS has sweetening, thickening, and water binding properties and can balances tartness.
  • HFCS is more stable than sucrose in acid products.
  • HFCS is more stable than some artificial sweeteners.
  • Its sweetness can be manipulated by varying the fructose: glucose ratio.
  • HFCS is not as likely as sucrose to form crystals, which can impart a “gritty” defect.
slide12

Is HFCS healthy?

HFCS has the same 4 Cal/g as sucrose.

HFCS is not the culprit for obesity.

The over consumption of calories in sweetened beverages plays a large role in the obesity problem. Sedentary life style and lack of exercise also play a large role.

Excess calories can come from sucrose, corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup or fat.

Over consumption of calories is not healthy.

guess the calories1
Guess the calories

1,443 Calories 1,500 Calories

slide17

“Sugar is Back on Food Labels, This time as a Selling Point”

The New York Times

March 21, 2009

By Kim Severson

- The quiet rivalry between sugar and high-fructose corn syrup appears to have a winner.

- “ The first lady, Michelle Obama, has said she will not give her children products made with it (high-fructose corn syrup).”

slide19

HFCS consumption is at a 20 year low (37 lbs per person, 44 lbs for sucrose).

  • “Sugar is sugar, HFCS has been highly disparaged and highly misunderstood.”
  • Analogy to the renaming of other foods – “Rapeseed oil”.
  • Even CSPI (and AMA) says sugar and HFCS are the same and have same health effect.
  • “Corn sugar” more easily understood and eliminates the negative connotation.
slide20

Relative sweetness of sweeteners

*bind water, laxative effect, gassy (caloric)

0.2 Cal/g

slide21

Stevia from plant extract 300 times sweeter than sucrose

Truvia based on Stevia

Neotame based on Nutrasweet 7,000 – 13,000 sweeter

slide24

Trans fats “look” more like saturated fats.

Trans fats “look” more like saturated fats.

Polyunsaturated > monosaturated

“Partially hydrogenated” fats.

“Attempt” to hydrogenate 4 cis double bonds succeeds with 2, leaves one alone, creates one trans double bond.

hydrogen bonding and solubility in water
Hydrogen bonding and solubility in water

“Hydrogen bonding” is nothing more than the attraction of positive and negative.

fat structure1
Fat Structure

Fatty acids are either saturated, monounsaturated (contain one C=C double bond) or polyunsaturated (contain two or more C=C double bonds)

Saturated fatty acids stack closely and are more solid. Unsaturated fatty acids are more fluid. “Hydrogenating” unsaturated fatty acids makes them more rigid.

carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Structure
  • Importance of glucose
  • Relative sweetness
  • Lo/no cal sweeteners
  • High fructose corn syrup
  • No definition of “natural”
  • My nuanced opinion of “Is HFCS good or bad?” It all depends…
  • “Bias”
other items
Other items:
  • How can you know?
  • Questions about the extra credit?
  • Questions about lipids, or carbs thus far?
  • Comments on the “Knowledge Assessment Opportunity”
  • Attendance
slide33

Amylose and Amylopectin

– Two forms of starch

slide34

Structure of Starch

Amylose = 30% of the starch, tightly packed, less digestible, insoluble in water.

Amylopectin = 70% starch, soluble in water, many endings, crystalline

gluten good or bad selling point
Gluten, good or bad?Selling point?

Survey:

Do you think gluten is “bad”?

Are you more likely to buy a product advertized as “gluten free”?

gluten
Gluten
  • Protein from wheat, barley, and rye (rice and corn different)
  • Associated with starch
  • Gliadin + gluteline
  • Important global protein source
  • Plasticity, shape, chewiness
  • Celiac disease < 1.0 % of population
slide38

Gums

Gums - hydrocolloidal suspensions that don’t gel, aren’t soluble, but bind lots of water. Most important are non digestible soluble fiber.

slide44

Glycemic index of foods

Glycemic index – the impact on blood glucose levels

slide45

The glycemic index, glycaemic index, or GIis a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates that break down quickly during digestion and release glucose rapidly into the bloodstream have a high GI; carbohydrates that break down more slowly, releasing glucose more gradually into the bloodstream, have a low GI.

A lower glycemic response usually equates to a lower insulin demand but not always, and may improve long-term blood glucose control[2] and blood lipids.

The glycemic index of a food is defined as the area under the two hour blood glucose response curve (AUC) following the ingestion of a fixed portion of carbohydrate (usually 50 g). The AUC of the test food is divided by the AUC of the standard (either glucose or white bread, giving two different definitions) and multiplied by 100.

The current validated methods use glucose as the reference food, giving it a glycemic index value of 100 by definition. GI values can be interpreted intuitively as percentages on an absolute scale and are commonly interpreted as follows :

slide51

White Sugar Production

Raw Sugar

Mixed with saturated sugar syrup

Centrifuge to remove impurities*

Dissolve water and raise pH

Heat to 180°F

Filter through diatomaceous earth and charcoal

Package

Screen for size

Dry

Centrifuge and Wash

Crystallize in Vacuum Pans

Supernatant

*“Impurities” become molasses