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Unit 3 Contemporary Latin America

Unit 3 Contemporary Latin America

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Unit 3 Contemporary Latin America

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  1. Unit 3Contemporary Latin America

  2. Regions of: • Mexico • Central America • South America • The Island of the Caribbean Sea

  3. Languages • Official of most = Spanish • Brazil = Portuguese • Belize and Jamaica = English • Haiti = French and Creole

  4. Why Study Latin America? • Size • Population • Resources led to rapid economic growth • Oil – Venezuela, Mexico • Cattle/Meat – Argentina, Uruguay • Mineral Deposits • Immigration • Drugs

  5. Challenges: • Rapidly growing population • Tradition + progress = rapid growth • Urbanization; Campensinos moved to cities for work = Shantytowns • Social inequality • Economies are based on exporting. • Multinational corporations supported so now huge debt • Limited ag growth b/c of focus on cash crops

  6. Growth of Democracy Failed • Elite controlled gvmt and economy • Liberals vs Conservatives • Armed guerrilla movements to force change • Liberation theology • International relations (Trade) • Rio Treaty (1947) – defense • Organization of American States OAS (1948) • Cold War influenced • Military aid to conservatives • Financial assistance (Alliance for Progress) • Free Trade Agreements after Cold War • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

  7. Homework: Read 755 - 760

  8. Mexico

  9. Background • One of the most stable countries of Latin American after WWII • One political party since ’29, Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) • ’40-60s = standard of living ↑, but rural areas lagged behind • Today = 40% of population in poverty

  10. Economic Problems • 1970s oil boosted the economy; pay of foreign loans • 1980s recession hit, wealthy Mexicans fled the country • Oil prices dropped • G’vt cut back jobs and services to save $ • The value of the peso was cut in half • Problems • ↑ debt • Gap b/wn rich and poor ↑ • Population grew rapidly • 1985 Earthquake hit Mexico City, killing 1000s, costing billions • Relations w/ US worsened

  11. The Salinas Era • 1988 Pres Carlos Salinas de Gortari promised reforms • Crack down on drug smuggling, illegal immigration • encouraged privatization • Attract foreign investment w/ NAFTA • Opposition • Reforms slow to reach the poor • Disliked the PRI’s g’vt control • In 1994 Zapatistas rebelled against the g’vt • Guerilla army of native American peasants in Chiapas • Demands: Aid poor, advance democracy, end NAFTA

  12. Zedillo and Reform • ’94 PRI candidate was assassinated; Ernest Zedillo Ponce de Leon wins • Dissatisfaction increases • ’97 Zedillo allowed multi-parties elections • Tensions remain w/ US • Drugs • Immigration

  13. Cuba

  14. Dictator Fulgencio Batisa (1952-1959) • Repressive, corrupt • Allowed American companies to own and control mines, ranches, oil, and sugar industries. • 1956-1959 Fidel Castro led guerilla attacks on Batista’s forces. • January 1, 1959 Batista fled; Castro took over

  15. Fidel Castro’s (1959) Policies • Tightens Control • Domestic Policies • No elections, ignored Cuban civil rights • Reforms • Improved wages, health care, education • Nationalized plantations and major industries. • Seized American-owned property • Responses: • U.S. cut off all sugar imports to the U.S. in 1960. • Cuba allied with the USSR • By 1961 Cuba’s dictatorship was Communist.

  16. Cuba After the Cold War • Devastated Economy • Loss of USSR aid after the fall of communism. • Poor sugar harvests • U.S. embargo since 1962. • Castro relaxes some policies but still Communist • Limited free enterprise to get foreign investment • Some religious freedom after the 1998 visit by Pope John Paul II.

  17. Haiti • One of poorest nationsin the world! • Unstable gvmts • 1957 – 1971 Francois Duvaliert; dictator • 1971 – 1986 His son; overthrown • 1986 – 1990 chaos • 1990 – 1991 Jean Bertrand Aristide; military coup • 1991 – 1994 military rule • 1994 – Artistide returns; UN helps get democracy • 1995 – Rene Preval 1st president but still probs.

  18. Contemporary Latin America Central America

  19. Factors that led to conflict: • Ethnic and social divisions • Unequal distribution of wealth • Drug trafficking • Foreign intervention • Dictatorships

  20. Nicaragua

  21. Somoza Family took power in ’37 • Am National guard supported until ’79 • Under Anastasio Somoza Debayle (’67) the family owned ¼ of all land and most industries, banks, and businesses. • ’70 U.S. ends support

  22. Anti-Somoza Overthrow in ’79 • Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) • Peasants • Catholic priests • Business people • Marxists

  23. Divisions After the Revolution • Sandinistas (Communists) • Less dependent on US • Got support from Cuba, USSR • Reforms: divided land, education, health care • Contras • Got support from US • Wanted capitalism • Upper, middle class • Tried to overthrow the government

  24. Civil War • 1981 US sent $19.5 million to Contras, who began attacking military bases from Honduras and Costa Rica. • 1985 Congress banned aid to Contras • Covert funds continued • Peace negotiations in • Cease-fire • Presidential elections in ’90 • Violeta Chamorrow (’90), Amoldo Aleman (’96)

  25. El Salvador

  26. Leading Industrial Country • In the Early ’70s • Modern • Highways • RRs • Airports • Office buildings

  27. Unequal distribution of wealth • 90% of wealth held by small # of landowning families • 40% of population = landless peasants • DEMANDS FOR CHANGE!

  28. Death Squads • Organized by wealthy landowners to stop a revolution • 1000 killed/month • Opposed by Roman catholic Archbishop Oscar Romero • Killed in mass • Civil war erupted on March 24, 1980

  29. Civil War • Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) = Leftist guerilla group • Salvadoran Government - US supported • 1992 peace established • Results: • 12 year civil war • 70,000 killed • 1.5 million refugees • Economic recovery

  30. Honduras

  31. Government • Democracy stable since 1981 • New constitution • Successful elections

  32. Economy • Little development • Remains the poorest and least developed country of the Western Hemisphere • Hurricane Mitch • 1998; one of the worst natural disasters of te 20th century • 7000 killed • 100,000s homeless • ½ o f ag crops destroyed (↓ exports)

  33. Guatemala The northern-most Central American country

  34. Ethnic and Social Division • Natives vs. Spanish-speaking urban dwellers ↓ ↓ majority held the power • In the 1960s, Native guerilla fighters attacked the government • Wanted land reforms • Result = Civil War

  35. Civil War • 36 years (1960 – 1980s) • 1996 peace agreement • Government - ↓ military, end discrimination against natives • Guerillas: disarm and return home • Results: • 100,000 killed • 46,000 missing • 1 million refugees

  36. Panama

  37. Government = Dictatorship Economy = Prosperous b/c of American-owned Panama Canal * but resentful of foreign influence Panama Canal

  38. Problems with the US • 1920s the US interfered w/ elections • Around WWII wanted military bases in Panama • 1950s student riots led to violence

  39. Panama Canal Treaties • Signed by Jimmy Carter and Omar Torrijos b/c of opposition to US ownership • Terms • Panama would take control of canal by December 31, 1999 • US would have the right to protect the canal’s neutrality • 1999 Mireya Moscosa becomes president and acquired the canal from the US

  40. Manuel Noriega as President • Elected in 1988 • President Bush sent troops in Dec ’89 when Americans were arrested • Noriega was seized and charged w/ drug smuggling in ’92

  41. South America

  42. Argentina One of the top 10 wealthiest nations before the 1930s… Since then they have endured military rule and a steady economic decline.

  43. The Peron Era • 1946 Juan Peron; Authoritarian but popular • Increased military budget • Supported pay raises for union members • Nationalized industries • Eva –hospitals, schools, clinics, nursing homes; gave to the poor • 1950s popularity ; protests • 1952 Eva’s died • Increased taxes on ag; food shortages

  44. Juan and Eva Peron

  45. Died in 1973; wife Isabel becomes 1st female president in the Ams. • Military ousted Isabel in 1976. • Changed tactics: Brutal, death squads (20,000 went missing) Isabel Peron

  46. Moving Toward Democracy • To regain status, the military was sent to seize the Falkland Islands in 1982 • After defeat by the British, military lost its credibility and allowed democratic reforms. • 1988 Economy in near collapse; hyperinflation