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Basic Ingredients of Network Management. Woraphon Lilakiatsakun. Basic components. Fig 3-1. Network devices. A NE (network element) must offer a management interface for management purposes Allow managing system to send requests ( configure, retrieve statistical data and etc)

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network devices
Network devices
  • A NE (network element) must offer a management interface for management purposes
    • Allow managing system to send requests ( configure, retrieve statistical data and etc)
    • Send information (response and unsolicited )
  • Manager – a managing application who in charge of the management
  • Agent – a NE who support the manager by responding its requests
management agent
Management agent
  • Consists of 3 parts
  • A management interface
  • A Management Information Base
  • The core agent logic
management interface
Management interface
  • Support a management protocol that define rule of conversation
    • Communication between the managed network element
  • For example
    • To open management session
    • To request to retrieve statistical data
    • To request to change configuration
management information base mib
Management Information Base (MIB)
  • Conceptual data store (management information) that contain management view of devices
  • A type of database used to manage the devices in a communications network. It comprises a collection of objects in a (virtual) database used to manage entities (such as routers and switches) in a network.(Ref. from wikipedia)
mib related standard
MIB related standard
  • RFC 1155
    • Structure and Identification of Management Information for TCP/IP based internets
  • RFC 1157
    • Simple Network Management Protocol
  • RFC 1213
    • Management Information Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based internets
mib oid tree
MIB – OID Tree

OID = (internet)


core agent logic
Core agent logic
  • Translates between the operation of the management interface, MIB, and actual device
    • Ex. Translate the request to “retrieve a counter” into internal operation that read out a device hardware register.
  • Additionally, it can include more management functions that offload the processing required by management app.
    • Pre-correlated raw events before sent out
management information 1 2
Management information (1/2)
  • The version of installed software
    • To decide which devices need to have new software
  • Utilization of port
    • Whether capacity upgrades are necessary
  • Environmental data (temperature and voltage)
    • Ensuring that a device is not overheating
  • Fans
    • What is causing the temperature to rise
management information 2 2
Management information (2/2)
  • Packet counters for different interfaces
    • Whether the network is under a certain type of attacks (DoS)
  • Protocol timeout parameter
    • To fine tune network communication performance
  • Firewall rules
    • Security purposes
  • others?
managed object mo
Managed object (MO)
  • Refer to “ a chunk of management information that exposes one of the real world aspects”
    • Ex. MO could represent a device fan along with its operational state, a port on a line card along with a set of statistical data
  • MO could be
    • a MIB object in SNMP
    • a parameter in a CLI (command-line interface)
    • An element of an XML document in web-based management interface
Not all aspects in the real world are modeled
    • Color of devices
  • Real world object that MO represents is referred to as the “real resource”
  • Since management information in MIB represents real resource
    • When querying the MIB for MO representing a packet counter 3 times, the value returned will be different
the management system
The Management System
  • Tools to manage the network
    • monitor the network
    • Service provisioning system
    • Craft terminal
  • In fact, management system is different from management applications
  • But often we can use both as the same meaning
the management network
The Management network
  • Networks for carrying traffic of subscriber or end user are referred as “production network”
  • Networks for carrying management traffic are referred as “management network”
  • Both can be physically separate networks or they can share the same physical network
pros of a dedicated management network
Pros of a dedicated management network
  • Reliability
    • Congestion or network failure occurs somewhere in the network, it makes the devices hard to reach
    • Also hard to find out what it happen
  • Interference avoidance
    • Compete with production traffic
    • May interfere high QoS services (voice ,video streaming)
  • Ease of network planning
    • No need to consider on management traffic
  • Security
    • Hard to attack and more secure
cons of a dedicated management network
Cons of a dedicated management network
  • Cost and overhead
    • Addition cost for a management network
  • No reasonable alternative
    • Some devices do not provide a physical connection for another usage
    • DSL router cannot be connected with two physical links
final word
Final word
  • Cost is the huge disadvantage
  • So, the management network is needed only critical area
    • Backbone of service providers or big enterprises)
  • Hybrid solution
    • Generally, it shares over production networks
    • Only critical segments are used as dedicated networks
managing the management
Managing the management
  • The management support org. is responsible for making sure that the network is being run efficiently and effectively
  • These tasks must be performed
    • Monitoring the network for failures
    • Diagnosing failures and communication outages
    • Planning and carrying out repairs
    • Provisioning new services and adding/removing users
Keeping an eye on performance of the network
    • Taking preventive measure
  • Planning network upgrades
    • Increase capacity
  • Planning network topology and buildout
    • Ensure that the network will meet future demand
organization structure
Organization structure
  • Network planning
    • Analyzing network usage and traffic patterns and planning network build out
  • Network operation
    • Keeping the network running and monitoring the network failures
  • Network administration
    • Installing new devices / software
  • Customer (user) management
    • Interacting with the customers
other thing are needed
Other thing are needed
  • Establishment of process and operational policies, documentation of operational procedures
    • Well-defined procedures
    • Well-defined workflow
    • Make management consistent and efficient
  • Collection of audit trails
    • Automatically logging activities of operations
Network documentation
    • Must be accurate and up-to-date
    • Important for network planning and software upgrades
    • Identify some discrepancies
  • Reliable backup and restore procedures
    • Bring network back to live again in case of disaster
  • Security emphasis
    • Networks potentially most vulnerable from the inside
    • Limit the damage that can cause by one person
management life cycle
Management life cycle
  • Plan
    • Before the network system starts
    • During the network system is running
management life cycle33
Management life cycle
  • Deploy
    • Installation of the equipment
    • Bootstrap mechanism to allow a device to obtain and IP address and have layer2 or 3 connectivity
  • Operate
    • Monitoring/troubleshooting/performance tuning and etc
  • Decommission
    • Old equipments (old technology) will be replace
management layer
Management layer
  • TMN (telecommunication Management network)
    • Network element
    • Element management
    • Network management
    • Service management
    • Business management
network element
Network element
  • It means “the management agent “
  • It involves with
    • the management functionality
    • Communication pattern (protocols)
element management
Element management
  • Involve managing the individual devices and keep them running
  • Functions such as
    • to view and change a network element’s configuration
    • To monitor alarm messages emitted from elements
    • To instruct network elements to run self-test
network management
Network management
  • Concern with keeping the network running as a whole (end-to-end)
    • Monitoring that involves ensuring that data flow to reach destination with acceptable throughput and delay
    • Managing multiple devices in a concerted fashion
service management
Service management
  • Managing the services that the network provides and ensuring those services are running smoothly
  • Let’s think as ISP (Internet service provider)
    • ?
business management
Business management
  • Billing and invoicing
  • Help desk management
  • Business forecasting
  • Etc ?