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The Egyptian Revolution. 1952-Present. History of Movements. Egyptian Revolution of 1952 Overthrowing of King Farouk by the “Free Officers Movement” military coup, lead by Nasser and Naguib Wider aims to overthrow pro-Western monarchies 1977 Bread Riots

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The Egyptian Revolution

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history of movements
History of Movements
  • Egyptian Revolution of 1952
    • Overthrowing of King Farouk by the “Free Officers Movement” military coup, lead by Nasser and Naguib
    • Wider aims to overthrow pro-Western monarchies
  • 1977 Bread Riots
    • Hundreds of thousands of Egyptians protest the termination of state subsidies on rice, flour, and cooking oil.
    • After two days, the army was deployed and the new policies were cancelled.
history of movements3
History of Movements
  • 2003: Demonstrations against the American-led invasion of Iraq
    • 20,000 participants, first time the people denounced Mubarak
    • Also the first time that demonstrators mislead the police, leaving from various mosques
  • 2004: Wave of strikes after July “government of businessmen” installation
    • Over 2 million workers participate in over 3,000 demonstrations
    • Some success: government forms two trade unions and quadruples monthly minimum wage to 400 LE
  • 2006: Solidarity demonstrations for Lebanon during the Israeli assault
  • 2008: Solidarity demonstrations for Gaza
    • In direct criticism of Mubarak’s foreign policy
the lead up to 2011
The Lead-up to 2011
  • Tunisian President Ben Ali ousted in December 2010
    • Some analysts warn that Egypt is likely to be next
    • Others refute this possibility, citing Egyptian apathy and illiteracy
  • Issues: police brutality, unemployment, poverty, low wages, widespread corruption
    • “State of Emergency” law in place since Sadat’s assassination in 1981, renewed every three years by parliament
    • Egypt has experienced economic growth, but most has not trickled down to lower classes
khaled saeed
Khaled Saeed
  • Died June 6, 2010 under questionable circumstances in Alexandria
  • Arrested by plainclothes Egyptian police for theft and weapons possession
    • Saeed’s friends say he had footage of police in drug deal
  • Allegedly beat to death while being arrested, with multiple witnesses and autopsy photos
    • Police claim he died of drug overdose
  • Named a catalyst of the 2011 revolution
    • “We Are All Khaled Saeed” group (now has 800,000 members) and silent protests
key figures
Key Figures
  • Wael Ghonim: 30 years old, AUC alum, Google’s head of marketing in the Middle East
    • Pseudonym “Al Shaheed,” or “The Martyr”
      • Ran Facebook el-Baradei fan page, “We Are All Khaled Saeed,” and Jan. 25 protest event page
      • Taken by plainclothes police officers, two weeks in custody with no information on protests
  • Ayman Nour: former member of Egyptian Parliament, chairman of El Ghad (“Tomorrow”) Party
    • Imprisoned in January 2005 and from Dec. 2005-Feb. 2009.
    • Ran for president in March 2005, was first runner-up with 7%
    • Injured (rock to head) in 2011 protests
    • Has stated intentions to run for the presidency now
key figures7
Key Figures
  • Mohamed al-Baradei:
    • Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency under the United Nations, which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005
    • Seen as possible Presidential candidate since 2009, but likeliness is disputed by both the people and Baradei
  • Field Marshal Mohammed Tantawi of the Armed Forces:
    • Served under Mubarak as Defense Minister, close ally of his
    • Now functioning as Egypt’s Head of State of International Relations for time being
  • Means “Enough” in Arabic, a.k.a. Egyptian Movement for Change
  • Pro-democracy movement, anti-Hosni and Gamal Mubarak
    • Not a political party- a “national coalition movement” for Mubarak’s resignation
  • Launched out of 2003 demonstrations against American-led invasion of Iraq
  • Peak of strength in 2005 constitutional referendum and presidential election campaigns, has diminished since.
muslim brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
  • During the 2011 revolution:
  • Has officially rejected violent means to secure its goals, gained popular support by providing social services
  • Denied responsibility for the beginning of the protests
  • Members of the Brotherhood were detained and later released throughout the demonstrations
  • Involvement in the revolution is highly debatable: many sources state that they had very little influence, while others claim that the Brotherhood is waiting to take over the fragile new government
april 6 youth movement
April 6 Youth Movement
  • 2008: Egyptian Facebook group started by Ahmed Maher
    • January 2009: 70,000 members; 98,737 as of last night
  • Originally to support workers planning to strike on April 6, 2008
    • Promoted “Million Man March” February 1, 2011
  • Core concerns: free speech, democracy, economy, fair elections
  • Members have been arrested and attacked at least three times
  • 1/29/2011: Wikileaks document shows US considers group goals “unrealistic”
  • One of 10 groups to meet with the Armed Forces Supreme Council on February 16

National Police Day Protests

  • Day 1: January 25, 2011 - the “Day of Rage”
  • “Police Day” commemorates a British attack on an Egyptian police station, sparking anti-British riots across the country
  • Six months later, Nasser led the Egyptians to revolution in 1952.
          • -The Police were seen as heroes, and a symbol of the resistance against foreign occupation.
          • -Modern Egyptian police are known for corruption and brutality.
  • This is a government holiday in Egypt, so businesses and schools were closed, allowing many people to participate in 2011.
  • Nationwide protests against Mubarak’s regime began. Tens of thousands of protesters filled Cairo’s Tahrir Square, and other Egyptian cities, including Alexandria and Suez.
  • The Muslim Brotherhood denies responsibility.

The 2011 Revolution

  • Day 4: January 28, 2011
  • Riot police remain in Tahrir from the January 25th protests, though no major demonstrations take place in Cairo until Friday, the 28th.
  • After Friday prayer, hundreds of thousands take to the streets.
  • Mobile phones & internet service is cut off by the government.
  • Protesters clash with riot police, armed with tear gas (made in the U.S.A.), water cannons, batons, and rocks.
  • A curfew is set for 7 PM, but not enforced.
  • As night falls, the National Democratic Party Headquarters is torched, and police retreat from the streets.

The 2011 Revolution

  • Day 4: January 28, 2011, continued
  • In the absence of the police (and perhaps on governmental orders, in an attempt to scare protesters back to their homes) looters take to the streets and the National Museum.
  • Neighborhood watch groups are set up.
  • Prison breaks are announced.
  • The military arrives to the welcoming arms of the people.
  • Mubarak addresses the people shortly after midnight, stating that he will dismiss his cabinet, but will not step down.

The 2011 Revolution

  • Days 5 and 6: January 29-30, 2011
  • Mubarak appoints a Vice President, Omar Suleiman, for the first time in his rule.
  • al-Baradei addresses protesters in Tahrir Square.
  • Embassies begin to encourage foreigners to evacuate.
  • Curfews are continuously established and extended, but not enforced.
  • Internet is still widely blocked.
  • The US offers statements from President Obama, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and Robert Gibbs.

The 2011 Revolution

  • Day 7 & 8: January 31- February 1, 2011
  • Internet is still widely blocked.
  • Mubarak names his new cabinet on State Television.
  • Worldwide, leaders call for “free and fair” elections, the reinstatement of internet access, and nonviolent demonstrations in Egypt.
  • Media outlets experience difficulty broadcasting: Al Jazeera Arabic is blocked, while State Television continues to broadcast calm images of the Nile River.
  • Mubarak announces that he will not run for re-election and will reform the constitution.
  • Clashes between pro- and anti-Mubarak protesters break out in Alexandria.
  • February 1st is named the “Million Man March”.

The 2011 Revolution

  • Days 9-13: February 2-6, 2011
  • Internet services are partially restored.
  • The press is oppressed, with cameras broken and CNN’s Anderson Cooper attacked.
  • “Pro-Mubarak” protesters enter Tahrir Square on the 2nd, with some riding horses and camels.
  • February 4th is deemed the “Day of Departure”.
  • The leadership of the ruling National Democratic Party resigns, including Mubarak’s son, Gamal.
  • Cairo attempts to start returning to normal: banks reopen for 3.5 hours, and traffic police return to the streets.

The 2011 Revolution

  • Days 14-16: February 7-9, 2011
  • Thousands remain camped out in Tahrir square.
  • The Egyptian government approves a 15% raise in salaries in an attempt to calm the protests.
  • Labor unions join street protests.
  • Suleiman announces a list of constitutional amendments.
  • Death tolls range from 50 to 302 since the beginning of Egypt’s uprising.

The 2011 Revolution

  • Day 17: February 10, 2011
  • Gaber Asfour, Mubarak’s newly appointed Culture Minister steps down
  • Mubarak addresses the people yet again amid rumors that he will be stepping down.
  • Instead, he promises the end of Emergency Law, repeats that he will not run again, and will “continue to shoulder” his responsibilities during this “peaceful transition”.
  • Protesters in Tahrir react furiously, waving shoes in the air and calling for mass protests the next day, Friday.

Mubarak Steps Down

  • Day 18: February 11, 2011
  • Background:
  • President from 1981-2011, and Chairman of the National Democratic Party
  • Vice President under Sadat until assassination, survived an estimated six assassination attempts himself
  • Air Chief Marshal in Egyptian Air Force
  • On February 11, 2011, Vice President Suleiman announces resignation of Mubarak after 18 days of protests.
  • Power is handed over to the Army.

Effect on Middle East

  • Major uprisings in Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Jordan, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Yemen
  • Tunisia’s Ben Ali flees to Saudi Arabia, Mubarak resigns, Jordan’s King Abdullah names a new prime minister, Yemen President Saleh won’t seek another term in 2013
  • Minor incidents in Iraq, Kuwait, Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, and Syria
  • Use of social media such as Facebook and Twitter prominent, as well as common demands
international response
International Response
  • Obama: Refrain from violence, maintain universal human rights, unblock internet, concrete steps towards reform.
    • “We support the people, but cannot dictate actions.”
    • Criticized for not backing up rhetoric with action.
  • David Cameron, Britain’s Prime Minister
    • First world leader to visit Egypt since Mubarak resigned.
    • Met with Tantawi, but not Muslim Brotherhood
    • “What’s so refreshing... is this is not an Islamist revolt.”
israel s response
Israel’s Response
  • Fear of “New Egypt”:
    • “...privileges Israel’s peace treaty with Egypt over internal Arab affairs.”
  • Statements for Stability:
    • Israel calls on the US and European countries to curb criticism of Mubarak to “preserve stability in the region.”
    • Mubarak means sustained stability, even if he doesn’t mean democracy.
israel s response23
Israel’s Response
  • President Shimon Peres: Hope the Egyptian people will be granted the “freedom and hope they desire.” Only history can judge the toppled regimes.
  • Defense Minister Ehud Barak: Recent events in Egypt do not risk Israel’s ties with its neighbor to the south.
muslim brotherhood24
Muslim Brotherhood
  • Participated in talks with Suleiman as a “banned but tolerated” organization in opposition groups
  • “Few signs” of aspirations to transform Egypt into a repressive Islamist state. Just want to participate.
    • Will apply to become an official political party as soon as necessary changes are made to Egyptian Constitution
  • “No secret agenda... or eyes set on the presidency.” Calls for gradual approach to peaceful popular reform.
    • “...Rights for all: not just for Muslims, but for all Egyptians.”
  • Spokesman says the peace treaty decision is up to the entire Egyptian people
muslim brotherhood25
Muslim Brotherhood
  • Will not field a presidential candidate this year, and will compete for no more than 1/4 of parliamentary seats.
    • “Give a chance to other groups to form...create a balance- secular, liberal, religious.”
  • Reasons for low profile- avoid stirring fear in West and secular Egyptians?
    • Critiques: is what they say what they want?
  • Until now, was only counterweight to Mubarak.
    • Now faces more opposition from emerging parties, and internal discord between liberals and fundamentalists
      • Broader voter turnout could vote out Brotherhood
now what
Now What?
  • Pan-Arabism
    • Possible resurgence around common drive for democratic freedoms
  • Temporary military rule in Egypt until elections can be held- as soon as 6 months.
    • Generals imposed Martial Law on February 13th while dissolving Parliament and suspending the constitution
    • Pledge to remain committed to “all international treaties” - including the 1979 Israel peace treaty.
now what27
Now What?
  • Former ministers being brought to court for profiteering and abuse of public funds.
  • Requests for freeze on Mubarak’s assets signify he may be held accountable for actions.
  • People stress need for follow-through
  • Release of political prisoners detained without charge on February 20
  • No presidential candidate from the “military establishment”
  • Rumors of Mubarak’s health condition in Sharm al-Sheikh
  • Egyptian court licenses a moderate Islamic party