Role of MEMS and nanotechnology in homeland security. MEMS stands for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. It is a technique of combining Electrical and Mechanical components together on a chip, to produce a system of miniature dimensions . By miniature, we mean dimensions less than the
Role of MEMS and nanotechnology in homeland security
MEMS stands for MicroElectro Mechanical Systems. It is a technique of combining Electrical and Mechanical components together on a chip, to produce a system of miniature dimensions .. By miniature, we mean dimensions less than the thickness of human hair !!!! First of all, what is MEMS ?
Nanotechnology is the technology of arranging atoms and molecules in a material. This allows to alter the properties of a material and build structures of desired features. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. Nanotechnology makes it possible to manufacture devices 80,000 times smaller than the thickness of human hair !! The wonder called nanotechnology
A simple analogy.. • The atoms in an object can be compared to the blocks in a building game. • In a building game, the blocks can be arranged to create different looking structures. • Similarly, atoms can be arranged differently to produce a multitude of devices. This forms the basis of nanotechnology.
Introduction to MEMS technology Introduction to Homeland Security Application of MEMS to Homeland Security Military Biometric Identification Bio-terrorism Marine Security Conclusion Outline
Homeland Security • Homeland Security refers to protection of territory, domestic population and critical infrastructure against external threats and aggression. • September 11 attacks and the bio-terrorism threats have made Department of Homeland Security a focal point in defending the nation against terrorist attacks.
Homeland Defense – Military Applications Biometric Identification Sensors Defense against Bio-terrorism Marine Security Application of Mems in Homeland Security
Military Applications of MEMS • Development of agile and advanced military warfare • Faster access to information in all domains – AIR, SEA & LAND
MEMS based Optical Identification and Communication Systems (MOICS) http://www.tanner.com/Labs/research/technologies/moics/optical_comm.htm
Modulated laser Controller Extract Data Receive Data Data Signal with data MEMS mirrors MOICS This system would ensure secure communication between sensors in Hazardous environment on battlefields without use of expensive positioning system. Interrogate unit Remote unit MEMS Mirrors http://mems.colorado.edu/c1.res.ppt/ppt/oe.review/ppt.htm?
Multisensor Microcluster • This system includes micro-sensors for measurement of temperature, pressure, humidity and position. • Applications : • Environmental Monitoring • Health Monitoring http://www.eecs.umich.edu/~wise/Research/Overview/Wise_Research.pdf
MEMS POLYCHROMATOR Imagine a soldier on a battlefield looking through a pair of binoculars and detecting from afar the nature of gas being emitted in a smoke cloud. There's no need to obtain a sample of the gas or even get close to it. Instead, the detection is made from a safe one or two miles away using a POLYCHROMATOR employing MEMS to analyze the chemical Species.
MEMS MAGNETOMETER • MEMS magnetometer coupled with wireless systems can detect tanks, trucks or terrorists with weapons hiding in caves upto depths of 100 feet. • MEMS Magnetometer sense change in earths Magnetic field without any drive current http://www.ee.ucla.edu/research/judylab/research/jeffresearch/
Navigation systems • “Global Hawk”- High-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) employing MEMS accelerometer, was flown over battlefields in Iraq for obtaining detailed views of what was happening on the ground (surveillance). • Development of Inertial Navigation systems using MEMS technology coupled with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to accurately guide projectiles to target.
Handheld Explosive Detectors • Miniature micro-machined silicon cantilever structures coated with sensitive polymer that detect vapors given off by explosives • Applications: • Explosive detection technology for airport and building • Detection of land mines • Environmental security • Public safety applications. Array of Cantilevers that bend in presence of explosives http://www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=6637
Chemical sensors used for detection of land mines unlikely to be detected by Remote Sensing techniques. The suspected areas are crop dusted with sensors which react with target chemical to produce a fluorescent pattern later detected by light detection techniques. Advantage : more reliable than other detection systems which have high false alarm rate. Detection of Land MinesSMART DUST
Pico-satellites Use of Radio frequency MEMS Switches in pico-satellites for communication with ground based Antennas http://www.aip.org/tip/INPHFA/vol-7/iss-1/p26.pdf
MEMS in Biometrics Fingerprint Identification Facial Recognition Iris and Retinal Identification www.autostar.com.sg/ biometric_solution.html
Reliable, low cost and convenient method of uniquely identifying individuals by measuring certain physical and behavioral characteristics This sample is then compared with the template or signature, based on the same characteristics established as unique identity of that individual and stored in the security system Characteristics: Finger prints, Palm prints, Retina and iris patterns, face patterns, voice, gait. Biometric Identification
Tactim • Sensory receptors in the finger tip have the ability to produce unique personal sound wave specific to each individual. • MEMS sensors are used to record the sound produced by the rubbing of the middle-fingertip of a person on a wooden plate, thereby providing an authentication system www.tactim.com
MEMS based Fingerprint Sensors • Determines Finger surface structure independent of moisture conditions. • The sensor is composed of an array of 60,000 pixels, with each pixel having sensing circuit comprising 102 transistors. • A finger ridge is detected as the result of mechanical deformation of each pixel http://www.eetimes.com/at/news/OEG20011114S0068
Defense against Bio-terrorism • Recent bio-terrorism in the form of anthrax attacks demands sensors to detect the presence of biological weapons such as airborne bacteria, viruses and other • pathogens • Technology: • BioMems • lab on a chip • Nanotechnology
Micro-Chem. Lab http://www.sandia.gov/mstc/technologies/microanalytical/index.html
Detection using µ-Chem lab • A chemical signature -- or fingerprint -- is created by separating constituents with chromatography, a process of moving the mixture through separation channels containing a variety of materials. Within about a minute, a small display screen flashes the name and quantity of the components. • The technique detects compounds at the part per billion level of concentrations.
15 Minutes of FAME • Advantage: low power requirements, low cost, hand-held, and lightweight. http://www.sandia.gov/mstc/technologies/microanalytical/analytic-system.html
Electronic Tongue www.utexas.edu/.../99oc_issues/ oc990120/oc_tongue2.html • MEMS Sensors act as “TASTE BUDS” to identify chemical Components in Liquids • Incorporates number of chemical sensors generating an electronic fingerprint of the tastes.
Use of Nanotechnology • Use of gold nano-particles to detect life-threatening bacteria and viruses such as anthrax and HIV • This technique is used is used for detecting specific DNA sequences, the genetic material that defines life.
Bottom Stationed Ocean Profiler(BSOP) • Development of a 10 by 7 foot Bottom Stationed Ocean Profiler - autonomous underwater vehicle • Incorporates chemical, physical and biological micro-sensors monitoring the waters for toxins or explosives • The profiler sits underwater, and surfaces on command to collect data and radio it back to the station. http://isis2.admin.usf.edu/ur/usfmagazine/spring02/rip1.html
Torpedos generally carry a arming sensor that determines whether conditions are right for the torpedos to detonate. Mems device are incorporated as arming sensor that are integrated with signal processing electronics and algorithms that determine when to arm the torpedo Makes the torpedos target specific Torpedo activation using MEMS
MEMS and Nanotechnology are the trends enabling Homeland Security. Research and development in this field would provide means to anticipate, deter and defend against terrorist threats and secure our borders against any kind of aggression Conclusion
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