Cities CITIES • Cities provided opportunities • Machine-made jobs • high wages • ended monotony of the farm.
CITIES • Job opportunities for Women • School teaching • Domestic service • Women doctors • Lawyers, typists, telephone girls, librarians, journalists and social workers. • Women gainfully employed rose from 2.5 million in 1880 to 8 million in 1910.
Cities CITIES • Cities were attractive • with telephones • bright lights and electricity. • Central heating • public water systems • indoor plumbing • sewage disposal • asphalt pavements and transportation.
Cities CITIES • Cities had many faces • Slums • Criminals • Beggars • Pollution • bad smells • grafters (corrupt politicians)
Cities CITIES • Cities offered beautiful parks, museums, libraries, churches, hospitals and schools. • Became the intellectual nerve center of the country.
The Charity Organization Movement • Kept detailed files on people who received their help • Decided who was worthy of help • Wanted immigrants to adopt American, middle-class standards. The Social Gospel Movement • Sought to apply the gospel teachings of Christ: charity and justice to society’s problems. • Moved into poor communities • Their settlement houses served as community centers and social service agencies. • Hull House, founded by Jane Addams a model settlement house in Chicago, offered cultural events, classes, childcare, employment assistance, and health-care clinics. The Settlement Movement
URBAN PROBLEMS The Settlement House Movement • Social welfare reformers work to relieve urban poverty • Social Gospel movement—preaches salvation through service to poor • Settlement houses—community centers in slums, help immigrants • Run by college-educated women, they: - provide educational, cultural, social services - send visiting nurses to the sick - help with personal, job, financial problems • Jane Addams founds Hull House with Ellen Gates Starr in 1889
Management vs. Labor “Tools” of Management “Tools” of Labor • “scabs” • P. R. campaign • Pinkertons • lockout • blacklisting • yellow-dog contracts • court injunctions • open shop • boycotts • sympathy demonstrations • informational picketing • closed shops • organized strikes • “wildcat” strikes
Haymarket Riot (1886) McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.
The American Federation of Labor: 1886 Samuel Gompers
How the AF of L Would Help the Workers • Catered to the skilled worker. • Represented workers in matters of national legislation. • Maintained a national strike fund. • Evangelized the cause of unionism. • Prevented disputes among the many craft unions. • Mediated disputes between management and labor. • Pushed for closed shops.
President Grover Cleveland If it takes the entire army and navy to deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card will be delivered!
The Pullman Strike of 1894 Government by injunction!
The Socialists Eugene V. Debs
“Big Bill” Haywood of theIWW • Violence was justified to overthrow capitalism.
IMPERIALISM • Under imperialism, stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations. • The late 1800s marked the peak of European imperialism, with much of Africa and Asia under foreign domination. • A policy of extending your rule over foreign countries • A major departure of the US policy of “isolation” toinvolvementin world affairs.
IMPERIALISM What are the factors involved in a country becoming imperialists? • EconomicThe growth of industry increased the need for natural resources. • CommerceNew markets and expansion of trade into Asia & Latin America. • Nationalistic European nations competed for large empires was the result of a rise in nationalism • MilitaryEurope had better armies than Africa and Asia, and it needed bases around the world to refuel and supply navy ships. • HumanitarianDesire/duty to spread western civilizations to other countries.
IMPERIALISM The New Manifest Destiny • Trade into Asia & Latin America • Keep up with Europe • Annex strategic islands in the S. Pacific and Caribbean Sea. • Trade center of the world • Build a canal • International policeman • Large naval presence
Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade:1870-1914
2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
The Monroe Doctrine • Originally meant that the United States declared itself neutral in European wars and warned other nations to stay out of the Western Hemisphere. • Later, the doctrine was interpreted to mean a more active role to protect the interests of the United States. IMPERIALISM Expanding U.S. Interests
EXPANSION ARGUMENTS • FOR EXPANSION • Keep up with European nations • Desire for prestige • Theory of racial superiority • Provide market for surplus goods and investments • AGAINST EXPANSION • America’s vastness provided enough of an outlet for the country’s energies • America should not rule over other peoples • Imperialists • Theodore Roosevelt • William Mckinley • William Randolph Hearst • Joseph Pulitzer • Anti-Imperialist League • Mark Twain • Andrew Carnegie • Susan B. Anthony
Cartoon-European grab bag European nations colonizing--US needed to do the same or become an insignificant county……
Cartoon-European grab bag COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900
Cartoon-US Expansion1 EXPANSION ARGUMENTS US goal was always expansion
documents expan1 AGAINST EXPANSION Isolationism FOR EXPANSION Expansionism
documents expan2 EXPANSION ARGUMENTS Expansion Expansion and a large naval fleet to protect interests
documents expan3 EXPANSION ARGUMENTS Expansion and spreading our culture
documents expan3 EXPANSION ARGUMENTS Source: Josiah Strong, Our Country:Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis… American Home Missionary Society, 1885…. It seems to me that God, with infinite wisdom and skill, is training the Anglo-Saxon race for an hour sure to come in the world’s future….The unoccupied arable lands of the earth are limited, and will soon be taken. Then will the world enter upon a new stage of its history----the final competition of races, for which the Angle-Saxon is being schooled….
documents expan3 EXPANSION ARGUMENTS Source: Josiah Strong, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis… American Home Missionary Society, 1885…. Then this race of unequalled energy, with all the majesty of numbers and the might of wealth behind it----the representative, let us hope, of the largest liberty the purest Christianity, the highest civilization…will spread itself over the earth…. If I read not amiss, this powerful race will move down
documents expan3 EXPANSION ARGUMENTS Source: Josiah Strong, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis… American Home Missionary Society, 1885…. upon Mexico, down Central and South America, out upon the islands of the sea, over upon Africa and beyond. And can any one doubt that the result of this competition of races will be the “survival of the fittest”?
Social Darwinist Thinking The Hierarchyof Race The White Man’sBurden: to civilize the world
appealed to the United States to of develop the Philippines poet of British imperialism Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child. Rudyard Kipling The White Man's Burden" in 1899