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EHE Cosmic Rays (HE1.4, 1.5, 2.1) PowerPoint Presentation
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EHE Cosmic Rays (HE1.4, 1.5, 2.1)

EHE Cosmic Rays (HE1.4, 1.5, 2.1)

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EHE Cosmic Rays (HE1.4, 1.5, 2.1)

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  1. EHE Cosmic Rays (HE1.4, 1.5, 2.1) Shigeru Yoshida Department of Physics Chiba University 29th ICRC Pune

  2. 29th ICRC Pune 7 events above 1020 eV No GZK ? When I was a rapporteur 6 years ago (ICRC Salt Lake)

  3. 29th ICRC Pune Anisotropy : UHECR Sky?

  4. 29th ICRC Pune New measurements • HiRes Two FD Eyes allows STEREO observation • HiRes1 • Most statistics above 10 EeV • Only 1 ring • HiRes2 • Lower Threshold Energy (~0.2 EeV) • 2 rings

  5. 29th ICRC Pune New measurements • Auger SD (Ground Array) + 3(+1) FD Eyes • SD • 50% Completed • ~1500 km2 • FD • 3 Eyes completed • mostly for Energy Calibration

  6. 29th ICRC Pune Present Exposure @ 1019 eV • HiRes1 (mono) ~5000 km2 sr yr • HiRes (Stereo) ~2500 km2 sr yr • Auger 1750 km2 sr yr ~ AGASA

  7. 29th ICRC Pune HiRes Aperture HiRes-2 mono HiRes stereo HiRes-1 mono • Stereo data: best resolution, optimized for E>31018eV Uses time-dependent calibration of detector and atmosphere • HiRes-2 monocular: can reach down to as low as 1017.2eV • HiRes-1 monocular data began ~3 years earlier: largest statistics, • Uses profile constrained fit (PFC) unreliable <1018.5eV HiRes Apertures Wayne Springer (this conference)

  8. 29th ICRC Pune HiRes 1 (mono) “GZK” Statistics • Expect 42.8 events • Observe 15 events • ~ 5 s Bergman (this conference)

  9. 29th ICRC Pune HiRes 1 (mono) Integral Spectrum Flux attenuation starts At around 1019.75 eV Consistent with the GZK hypothesis Bergman (this conference)

  10. 29th ICRC Pune You need some caution • HiRes1 is strongly BIASED measurement. It’s MONOCULAR and only 1 ring! Viewing limited volume of the atmospheric volume. • Aperture continues increasing with energy • Profile constrained fit to estimate energy Stereo measur. should provide a confident data

  11. 29th ICRC Pune HiRes Stereo Flux • Fit to power law. • Single index gives poor chi2 • Evidence for changing index Wayne Springer (this conference)

  12. 29th ICRC Pune HiRes Stereo (and others) • Exhibits cutoff structure Expect 33.7 events Observe 9 events ~4.8s • Some details DIFFERENT from mono! The Mono spectrum may contain unknown syst.

  13. 29th ICRC Pune Some Remarks • HiRes StereoCut “sort of” narrow Opening angle events Require careful estimation of detect. Eff. Scanning simple parameters continues • AGASA conflictsEnergy scale? Old MC? • Auger Hybrid measurement

  14. 29th ICRC Pune Auger Hybrid Paul Sommers (this conference) Log (E) = -0.79 + 1.06 Log(S38) E = 0.16 S381.06 (E in EeV, S38 in VEM) Uncertainty in this rule increases from 15% at 3 EeV to 40% at 100 EeV

  15. 29th ICRC Pune Auger SD spectrum • Energy scale uncer. still large ~40 % in 100 EeV improvement will come soon Paul Sommers (this conference)

  16. 29th ICRC Pune S(1000): The energy indicator (Ghia, this conference)

  17. 29th ICRC Pune S(1000): The energy indicator • Less mass composition sensitive Not just muons but emg component make sizable contributions (Alan Watson, private comminication) • S(1000)Fe-P~10 % difference (Paul Sommers, private com) • s s(1000)~15% @ 10 VEM (Ghia, this conference) BUT ALL these rely on EAS MC!! S.Yoshida

  18. 29th ICRC Pune Intrinsic fluctuation Of EAS development!! A scary scenario When more statistics

  19. (Sako, this conference) interaction point 96mm 140m LHCf The beam pipes of LHC are separated by 96mm at 140m from the interaction point. Charged particles are swept out by magnets. LHCf measures the distribution of the Feynman x parameter (practically energy) of neutral particles emitted in the very forward region using position sensitive calorimeters placed in this 96mm gap.

  20. Beam LHCf Prototype test Main detector Silicon tracker for position calibration

  21. 29th ICRC Pune Event cluster > 40 EeV No significant excess: AGASA’s triplet Pch ~0.28 (Westerhoff, this conference)

  22. 29th ICRC Pune 60° 180° 170° AGASA triplet story HiRes stereo event 6060 180° 170° One event added – BUT below 40 EeV!! (Westerhoff, this conference)

  23. 29th ICRC Pune HiRes: BL Lac correlation? • “BL” BL Lacs with m<18, all HiRes events (no energy cut): • F = 2×10-4 • All confirmed BL Lacs (“BL+HP”) with m<18, HiRes E>10 EeV: • F = 10-5 • Confirmed TeV blazars, all HiRes events (no energy cut): • F = 10-3 • These are not independent results: the samples overlap. • Analysis has been a posteriori, so F values are not true chance probabilities. (Finley, this conference)

  24. 29th ICRC Pune HiRes2 Mono: Galactic anti-center? (Thomson, this conference)

  25. (Letessier-Selvon, this conference) 29th ICRC Pune Auger: Galactic Center Coverage Significance (1.5º) 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0 240 300 270 Significance (3.7º) Significance (13.3º)

  26. 29th ICRC Pune Filled circles, HiRes; Triangles, HiRes/MIA, Open circles, Fly’s Eye (shifted). Mass Compositon (Xmax) HiRes+Fly’sEye(shifted) LightHeavyLight? (Sokolsky, this conference) 1EeV

  27. 29th ICRC Pune Particle Physics Outputs (Mathews, this conference)

  28. 29th ICRC Pune So What we have seen? • GZK strikes back! Needs cautions on energy scale, but the spectrum is consistent with the cutoff • No anisotropy…. Except some possible indication.. Deficit in anti-galactic center, BL-Lac correlation Then… what we can do to pin down UHECR origin ? ADDING MORE (GOOD) DATA!

  29. 29th ICRC Pune Multi WavelengthParticle spices observation • GZK photons/Neutrinos lead to information on EHE cosmic ray source distribution, radio background, and extragalactic B. • Photon-induced EAS search LPM + Geomagnetric Preshower effects  Xmax anomaly • HiRes (O’Neill, this conference) • Auger (Risse, this conference)Fg(Eg>10EeV) < 26 %

  30. 29th ICRC Pune EHE Neutrino Observatory • Deeply penetrating inclined EAS search Auger (Nellon, this conference) HiRes …. • IceCube (In-ice Cherenkov light detector) (Chirkin, this conference) • Rice (In-ice Cherenkov Radio detector) • ANITA (In-Flight Cherenkov Radio detector) (Duvernois, this conference) • Acoustic Extension (In-ice Acoustic detector) (Nahanhauer, this conference)

  31. 29th ICRC Pune IceCube IceTop 1km3! Deep Ice Array (Chirkin, this conference)

  32. 29th ICRC Pune 1EeVt 300 PeV cascade IceCube Conventional Technique extends up to EHE!

  33. IceCube Yoshida et al PRD 69 103004 (2004)

  34. 29th ICRC Pune “Hybrid” tech to extend ++1km3 “conventional” detector provides “test” beam!  Use IceCube holes 3 distant holesdown to 400 m  7 stations per hole sensor, transmitter, auxiliary det. per station  Deployment January 2006 Results Summer 2006 Rolf Nahanhauer (this conference)

  35. 29th ICRC Pune Future Outlook • Auger: 7 x AGASA by 30th ICRC • HiRes: <2 years STEREO data to be analyzed. ~70% more statistics “independent” dataset for testing the “BL Lac” • New observatory in the Northern sky Telescope Array

  36. Telescope Array 576 plastic scintillation Surface Detectors(SD) 5 communication towers SD 3m21.2cm t two layers Atmospheric fluorescence telescope 3 stations Middle Drum FD 1.2km spacing Black Rock Mesa Long Ridge 20km Sensitivity of SD : ~9 x AGASA

  37. 29th ICRC Pune degree Recorded waveforms Analysis result ch# SDP dc cc ba aa 99 89 78 68 57 46 35 preliminary logE(eV) = 18.05 Xmax = 674.9 g/cm2 q = 46.2o degree Relative time (Ogio, this conference) Test Observations @ Millard county, Utah • 3-13 July, 2005 @ Black Rock Mesa site • Single telescope with 256ch PMTs camera • Total observation time: 31.5 hours • 1st level trigger threshold: 6 - 6.5 sigma • Trigger rate: 0.6 - 1.5 Hz Typical waveform with fluorescence light (RUN65,TRIG165, CH89) s=5 ADC count = 2.5 p.e./100 ns An observed shower-like track (11 July, 2005)

  38. 29th ICRC Pune Future Outlook • Auger: 7 x AGASA by 30th ICRC • HiRes: <2 years STEREO data to be analyzed. ~70% more statistics “independent” dataset for testing the “BL Lac” • New observatory in the Northern sky Telescope Array • EHE gamma ray/Neutrino search • EAS detector, IceCube, Rice, ANITA etc.

  39. 29th ICRC Pune Thank you! Nos vemos en Mejico!! S.Yoshida