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Chapter 8: Receivables . Learning Objectives: The methods used to estimate uncollectible accounts and the net realizable value of accounts receivable. How firms estimate and record sales returns and allowances. How to evaluate whether or not receivables arose from real sales.

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chapter 8 receivables

Chapter 8: Receivables

Learning Objectives:

The methods used to estimate uncollectible accounts and the net realizable value of accounts receivable.

How firms estimate and record sales returns and allowances.

How to evaluate whether or not receivables arose from real sales.

learning objectives contd

Learning Objectives (contd.)

How to impute and record interest when notes receivable have either no implicit interest or unrealistic low interest rate.

How companies use receivables to accelerate cash inflows and how the accounting treatment affect the financial ratios.

Securitization and off-balance sheet financing.

  • Current receivables--Collected within one operating cycle or one year, whichever is longer.
    • Trade receivables: amount owed by customers for goods sold and services rendered as part of normal business operations, including
      • Accounts receivable: receivables arise from credit sales or performing services to customers on account.
  • Trade Receivables (contd.):
      • Notes receivable: receivables arise when the seller extends long-term credit to the buyer, who then signs a note.
    • Nontrade Receivables: all others (i.e., interest receivable, advances to employees, deposits to cover potential damages, etc.)
accounts receivable
Accounts Receivable
  • Accounts receivable are recorded at face amount to be collected.
  • Management must periodically assess the allowance for uncollectibles.
  • Management has to concern with:
        • Recognition - when
        • Valuation – how
        • Disposition – collected/sell/write-offs
accounts receivable recognition and valuation
Accounts Receivable : Recognition and Valuation
  • Recognition:

Consistent with revenue recognition criteria.

  • Valuation: Follow conservatism
    • GAAP requires that accounts receivable be reported on the balance sheet at their net realizable value (NRV).
    • NRV is to estimate value of Accounts Receivables to be ultimately collected by the firm.
accounts receivable assessing nrv of receivables
Accounts receivable:Assessing NRV of Receivables
  • Two amounts must be estimated to determine the NRV of receivables:
    • Uncollectibles—the amount that will not be collected because customers are unable to pay.
    • Returns and allowances—the amount that will not be collected because customers return the merchandise or are allowed a reduction in the amount owed.

NRV of








returns &





uncollectible accounts
Uncollectible Accounts

Describe the accounting treatment of anticipated uncollectible accounts receivable.

accounts receivable why estimating uncollectibles is important
Accounts Receivable:Why estimating uncollectibles is important?
  • Most companies establish credit policies by weighing the following:
    • Expected cost(e.g. Customer collection and billing costs plus potential bad debts) of credit sale.
    • Benefit of increased sales.
  • The bad debts are often unavoidable. The matching principle requires that the estimate of uncollectible accounts be offset against current period sales--- Allowance Method

Some future dates



$10,000 current period sales

$500 is uncollectible

$500 estimated expense

uncollectible accounts receivable
Uncollectible Accounts Receivable
  • Bad debts: the uncollectible accounts receivable.
  • Methods to report receivables at the NRV:
    • Direct Write-off
    • Allowance method: Bad debt expense is recorded in thesameaccounting period in which the sales related to the uncollectible accounts were recorded.
    • This method is in compliance with thematching principle.
direct write off method
Direct Write-off Method

If uncollectible accounts are immaterial, bad debts are simply recorded as they occur (without the use of an allowance account).

allowance method

Normally classified asaselling expenseandclosed at year-end.

Contra assetaccount toAccounts Receivable.

Allowance Method

Allowance Method: Most businesses record an estimate of the bad debt expense by an adjusting entry at the end of the accounting period.

allowance for uncollectible accounts
Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts

Accounts Receivable

Less: Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts

Less: Returns and allowances

Net Realizable Value

Net realizable value is the amount of the accounts receivable that the business expects to collect.

uncollectible accounts1
Uncollectible Accounts

Allowance Method:

Describe the two approaches to estimating bad debts

two approaches to estimate bad debts
Two Approaches to Estimate Bad Debts

Allowance Method:

  • Sales Revenues Approach (Percentage of Sales Method):
  • Gross Receivables Approach
    • Composite Rate (Percentage of Receivables):
    • Aging of Receivables
sales revenues approach
Sales Revenues Approach
  • Focuses on pastcredit salesto make estimate of bad debt expense.
  • Emphasizes thematching principleby estimating thebad debt expenseassociated with the current period’s credit sales.

Bad debts expense iscomputed as follows:

sales revenues approach1
Sales Revenues Approach

In 2006, MusicLand has credit sales of $400,000 and estimates that 0.6% of credit sales are uncollectible.

What is Bad Debts Expense for 2006?

MusicLand computes estimated Bad Debts Expense of $2,400.

gross receivables approach
Gross Receivables Approach
  • Focuses on the collectability of accounts receivable to make the estimate of uncollectible accounts.
  • Involves the direct computation of the desired balance in the allowance for uncollectible accounts.
  • Two Estimation methods:
      • 1. Composite Rate
      • 2. Aging Receivable

Gross Receivables Approach 1. Composite Rate method:Desired balance in allowance for uncollectible accounts = year-end accounts receivable balance x bad debt expense %

gross receivables approach composite rate
Gross Receivables Approach : Composite Rate

On Dec. 31, 2006, MusicLand has$50,000 in Accounts Receivableand

a$200 credit balance in Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts.

Past experience suggests that 5% of receivables are uncollectible.

What is MusicLand’s Bad Debts Expense for 2006?

Desired balance in Allowancefor Uncollectible Accounts

Gross receivable approach: Estimated the uncollectibles by using Aging Schedule of Accounts Receivable
  • An aging of receivables is simply a determination of how long each receivable has been on the books.
  • Receivables that are long past due often because customers are experiencing financial difficulties and may ultimately become uncollectible.
  • The aging schedule generates the desire ending balance of “ Allowances for doubtful accounts ”.
aging schedule of accounts receivable is the allowance for uncollectibles adequate
Aging Schedule of Accounts Receivable :Is the allowance for uncollectibles adequate?
  • The Allowance for uncollectible accounts has a balance of $39,000
  • prior to the adjustments.
  • The allowance account needs to increase by $11,750.
  • This is the difference between the desired balance ,$50,750, and the existing
  • balance $39,000.

DRBad debts expense $11,750

CR Allowance for uncollectibles $11,750

accounts receivable disposition writing off bad debts
Accounts receivable disposition:Writing off bad debts
  • Some time later, Bristol determines that a $750 receivable from Ralph Company cannot be collected.
  • Note that no bad debt expense is recorded at this time because the estimated expense was previously recorded (matching principle).

Allowance for uncollectibles $750

Accounts receivable – Ralph Company $750

So what happens if someone pays after a write-off of the accounts receivable?

collection of previously written off accounts
Collection of PreviouslyWritten-Off Accounts

When a customer makes a payment after an account has been written off,twojournal entries are required.

accounts receivable understanding receivable disclosures
Accounts receivable:Understanding receivable disclosures

Scotts was taking a more conservative view of receivable collections in 2001.

What impact did this conservative view have on the 2001 pre-tax earnings?

sales returns and allowances
Sales Returns and Allowances

Describe the accounting treatment for merchandise returns

sales returns and allowances1
Sales Returns and Allowances

Sales Returns

Sales Allowances

Merchandise returned by a customer to a supplier.

A reduction in the cost of defective merchandise.

sales returns allowances fasb 48
Sales Returns & Allowances (FASB 48)

A. The amount of sales R&A is not significant

Direct method

B. The amount of sales R&A is significant and six conditions are not met:

Postpone the revenue recognition until all six conditions are met or the return period expired.


sales returns allowances fasb 481
Sales Returns & Allowances (FASB 48)

C.The amount of sales R&A is significant and six conditions are met:

Allowance method.


six conditions sfas no 48
Six Conditions (SFAS No. 48)

1. Sales price is determinable or fixed;

2. Buyers have paid or have the obligation to pay the sales price;

3. The buyer’s obligation would not be changed due to theft or damage of the product after purchase;

4. Sellers are not responsible for the performance of the product;

5. Buyers and sellers are two separate economic entities;

6. The amount of returns can be estimated.


the amount of sales returns allowances is significant and six conditions are met
The Amount of Sales Returns & Allowances Is Significant and Six Conditions Are Met

Sales can be recognized in the period in which the sales are made.

Also, at the end of the same period, the amount of sales returns would be estimated and recognized.

10/5/2006 A/R 10,000

Sales 10,000

12/31/2006 Sales R&A 1,000

(Adj. entry) Allow. for sale R& A 1,000

(estimate 10% returns)

1/10/2007 Allowance for sales R&A 900

A/R 900

Inventory XXX

Cost of Goods Sold XXX

Sales returns occurred

learning objective
Learning Objective

Do existing receivables represent real sales?

accounts receivable do existing receivables represent real sales




Accounts receivable:Do existing receivables represent real sales?
  • Reasons why receivables might grow faster than sales:
    • Change in credit policy.
    • Deteriorating credit worthiness among existing customers.
    • Firm has changed its financial reporting policy – accelerated revenue recognition.
do existing receivables represent real sales contd
Do existing receivables represent real sales? (contd.)
  • Large increases in receivables relative to sales represent a danger signal.
  • Revenue recognition irregularities are often connected to the disparity of the growth rates of receivables and sales.
  • Sales of receivables can conceal the real increase of receivables.
accounts receivable bausch lomb illustration
Accounts receivable:Bausch & Lomb illustration

Receivables are growing faster than sales


accounts receivable bausch lomb s changing dso
Accounts receivable:Bausch & Lomb’s changing DSO

DSO Receivables by Quarter

Days Sales Outstanding


notes to the case of bausch lomb
Notes to the Case of Bausch & Lomb
  • In the 4th quarter of 1993, the company shifted responsibility for the sale and distribution of a portion of the US contact lens business to optical distributors.
  • Thus, revenue was recognize upon the shipment of lenses to these distributors rather than waiting until lenses were sold to final consumers.
  • The top-down pressure to achieve sales and profit goals caused the company to loose its credit policy (i.e., extend the payment period) and pressured the distributors to take unwanted goods. This practice lasted from Q4 of 1992 to early 1994.
accounts receivable sunbeam corporation illustration
Accounts receivable:Sunbeam Corporation illustration

18.7% sales growth

36.4% receivable growth




accounts receivable clues available to the analyst
Accounts receivable:Clues available to the analyst
  • Receivable growth at Sunbeam greatly exceeded sales growth (a disparity in growth rates of sales and receivables).
  • “Bill and hold” sales raise the possibility that some of this disparity occurs because sales were booked too early—thus generating receivables that won’t be collected quickly (if ever).
accounts receivable clues available to the analyst1
Accounts receivable:Clues available to the analyst
  • Had Sunbeam not sold about $59 million of receivables, the receivable growth rate would have been much higher than 36.4% in 1997.
  • This makes it even more likely that some “channel stuffing” was occurring.

* Channel stuffing ( Trade loading): abusiness practice where a company inflates its sales by forcing more products through a distribution channel than the channel is capable of selling .

learning objective1
Learning Objective

Derive and record the impute interests of notes receivable when the notes receivable either carry no interest or lower interest than the market rate

notes receivable
Notes Receivable
  • Short–term notes receivable: Reported at the net realizable value (i.e., the face minus the allowance for uncolletibles)
  • Long-term notes receivable: Initial Recording Net present value.
  • End of Period: Net present value.
  • Companies can also choose the fair value option for the reporting of the long-term notes receivable.

Cash and Receivables

imputed interest non interest bearing note
Imputed interest: Non-interest bearing note
  • Suppose Monson Corp. sells a machine to Davenport Products and accepts a note for $5 million due in three years. The note bears no explicit interest.
  • Suppose the cash selling price is $3,756,600…then the effective borrowing rate must be 10%.

Interest accumulates at 10% on the unpaid balance


journal entries for monson s case
Journal Entries for Monson’s Case

At the sale of the equipment:

Note Receivable 5,000,000

imputed interest stated rate is below prevailing borrowing rate
Imputed interest: Stated rate is below prevailing borrowing rate
  • Quinones Corp. sells a machine to Linda Manufacturing in exchange for a $4 million, three-year, 2.5% note. At the time, the interest rate normally charged to companies with Linda’s credit rating is 10%.
  • What is the implied (cash) sales price of the machine?

Prevailing rate

Stated rate


additional examples on long term n r example a
Additional Examples on Long-Term N/RExample A
  • Receiving a 2-year note on sales of goods on 1/1/x1. The face amount of this note is $100,000 and the annual interest of the note is 10%. The interests are paid annually and the market interest rate (i.e., the imputed interest)is 12%. Present value of the note:

$100,000 0.79719 + 10,000 1.69005


Cash and Receivables

long term n r example a contd
Long-Term N/RExample A (contd.)


Notes Receivable 100,000

Sales Revenue 96,620

Discounts on N/R 3,380

  • Effective Interest of 20x1

= PV of note on 1/1/x1  12%

= ($100,000 - 3,380)  12%

= 11,594.4

Cash and Receivables

long term n r example a contd1
Long-Term N/RExample A (contd.)

12/31/x1 (recording receiving of $10,000 interest)

Cash 10,000

Discount on N/R 1,594.4

Interest Revenue 11,594.4

P.V. of the note on 1/1/x2

= 100,000 - (3,380 - 1594.4) = 98,214.4

  • Effective Interest of 20x2 = PV on 1/1/x2  12%

= 98,214.4  12% = 11,785.7

Cash and Receivables

long term n r example a contd2
Long-Term N/RExample A (contd.)

12/31/x2 (recording int. received on 12/31/x2):

Cash 10,000

Discount on N/R 1,785.7

Int. Revenue 11,785.7

12/31/x1 (recording face amount of N/R received on maturity date):

Cash 100,000

N/R 100,000

  • Discount on N/R has been amortized to zero after two years of amortization using the effective interest method.

Cash and Receivables

long term n r example b see e8 5 and e8 7
Long-Term N/RExample B (see E8-5 and E8-7)
  • On 12/31/x1 La Tourette Inc. rendered services to Husky Corp. at an agreed price of $73,844.10, accepting $18,000 down and agreeing to accept the balance in four equal installments of $18,000 receivable each 12/31. An assumed interest rate of 11% is imputed. Record the journal entries for La Tourette for the sale and for the receipts and interest on the following dates:

1. 12/31/20x1 2. 12/31/20x2

3. 12/31/20x3 4. 12/31/20x4

5. 12/31/20x5

Cash and Receivables

long term n r example b contd
Long-Term N/RExample B (contd.)
  • PV of $18,000 annuity @11%, four payments

= 18,000  3.10245 = 55,844.10

Thus, the revenue from the services

= 18,000 + 55,844.10 = 73,844.10


Cash 18,000

Notes Receivable 72,000

Discount on N/R 16,155.9a

Revenue from Services 73,844.10

a. (18,000  4) - 55,844.10 = 16,155.9

Cash and Receivables

long term n r example b contd1
Long-Term N/RExample B (contd.)

12/31/x2 (recording install. Payment of $18,000 and the amortization of discount on N/R):

Cash 18,000

N/R 18,000

Discount on N/R 6,142.85

Interest Revenue 6,142.85a

a. Interest Revenue of 20x2

= pv of note on 1/1/x2 (or 12/31/x1)  11%

= 55,844.1  11% = 6,142.85

Cash and Receivables

long term n r example b contd2
Long-Term N/RExample B (contd.)


Cash 18,000

N/R 18,000

Discount on N/R 4,838.56

Interest Revenue 4,838.56a

a. Interest Revenue of 20x3

= PV of the note on 1/1/x3  11%

= (55,844.1 - 18,000 + 6,142.85)  11%

= 43,986.95  11% = 4,838.56

Cash and Receivables

long term n r example b contd3
Long-Term N/RExample B (contd.)

12/31/x4 (recording install. Payment of 18,000 and the amortization of discount on N/R):

Cash 18,000

N/R 18,000

Discount on N/R 3,390.81

Interest Revenue 3,390.81a

a. Interest Revenue of 20x4

= PV of the note on 1/1/x4  11%

= (43,986.95 - 18,000 + 4,836.56)  11%

= 30,825.51  11% = 3,390.81

Cash and Receivables

long term n r example b contd4
Long-Term N/RExample B (contd.)


Cash 18,000

N/R 18,000

Discount on N/R 1,783.68

Interest Revenue 1,783.68a

a. Interest Revenue of 20x5

= pv of note on 1/1/x5  11%

= (30,825.51 - 18,000 + 3,390.81)  11%

= 16,216.31  11% = 1,783.68

Cash and Receivables


The Fair Value Option: Bristol Corporation (Also see Exhibit 8.8 for an example of the fair value option applies to a long-term note receivable )

  • Recall that Bristol Corporation reports a net realizable value of $1,455,000 (gross receivables of $1,500,000 minus allowance for uncollectibles of $45,000).
  • Assume that there is an active market for these types of receivables and that the price is 95% of face value, or $1,425,000. To adjust the receivable’s carrying value to fair value, the difference between the fair value and the face amount of the receivable is recognized as an unrealized loss on the income statement as follows:

An asset valuation account that is adjusted upward or downward as fair values change


accelerating cash collections financing with receivables
Accelerating cash collections/ Financing With Receivables
  • Companies might want to accelerate cash collection of receivables for these reasons:

(1) to avoid processing and collection costs;

(2) because of a cash flow imbalance; between supplier payments and receivable collections;

(3) to provide product financing in order to be competitive.

(4) to fund an immediate cash need.

Accelerating cash collections on Notes receivable in this way is called discounting: Discounted Notes
  • Suppose Abbott Manufacturing received a $9,000 six-month, 8% note from Weaver, a customer. That same day, Abbott “discounted” the note at Second State Bank:
  • Abbott would make the following entry when the note is discounted:

DRCash $8,789.40

DR Prepaid interest 201.60

CR Note receivable 9,000

accelerating cash collections financing with accounts receivables sale and collateralized borrowing
Accelerating cash collections/Financing with accounts receivables: Sale and collateralized borrowing
  • There are two ways to accelerate cash collections:
Secured Borrowing (i.e., assigning or Pledging of accounts receivable): The owner of the receivable borrows cash from banks by writing a promissory note using the receivable as collateral.

Companies will pledge of assign receivables for borrowing when other ways of borrowing are not possible or too expensive.

Financing With Receivables

accelerating cash collections secured borrowing using receivables as collateral i e pledge
Accelerating cash collections: Secured borrowing using receivables as collateral (i,.e.,Pledge)
  • Suppose instead Hervey uses the $80,000 of customer receivables as collateral for a loan. The entry to record the collateralized loan on Hervey’s books is:
  • Once the loan is due (in one year), Hervey would make these entries:

DRCash $76,800

DR Prepaid interest 3,200

CR Loan Payable – Leslie Financing $80,000

Note: $80,000 of accounts receivable were pledged for this loan.

DRLoan Payable –Leslie Financing $80,000

CR Cash $80,000

DR Interest expense $3,200

CR Prepaid interest $3,200

Factor (Sell) of accounts receivables: accounts receivable holders sell receivables to finance companies or banks for cash. The banks charge a fee (i.e., service charge) and collect the receivables directly from customers.

Factor of receivables may be without recourse (no footnote disclosures required) or with recourse.

Financing With Receivables: Sale of Accounts Receivable

sale of accounts receivable without recourse
Sale of Accounts Receivable :Without recourse

Withoutrecourse (always treated as a sale):

  • An ordinary sale of receivables to the factor.
  • Factor assumes all risk of uncollectibility.
  • Control of receivable passes to the factor.
  • Receivables are removed from the books,cash is received and a financing expense or loss is recognized.
accelerating cash collections sale of receivable factoring without recourse
Accelerating cash collections: Sale of receivable (factoring) without recourse
  • Sale of Accounts receivable without recourse – the buyeris responsible for the bad debts.
    • In this case we are selling an asset (treated as a sale).
    • Any difference between what we are giving up and what we are getting is a gain or loss.
accelerating cash collections sale of receivable factoring without recourse1
Accelerating cash collections:Sale of receivable (factoring) without recourse
  • Hervey Corp. sells $80,000 of its customer receivables to Leslie Financing (the factor) for $76,000. The entry to record the without recourse sale on Hervey’s books is:

DR Cash 76,000

DR Interest expense (loss) 4,000

CR Accounts receivable 80,000

ambiguities abound is it a sale or a borrowing when factoring accounts receivable with recourse
Ambiguities Abound : Is it a sale or a borrowing when factoring accounts receivable with recourse?
    • When sale of Accounts receivable with recourse, theselleris responsible for the bad debts (i.e., the transferor (seller) retains the risk of uncollectibility).
    • In this case: Is the firm selling an asset or borrowing?
  • Answer:
    • If it meets the SFAS No.140 criteria, it can be treated as sales of assets.
sale of accounts receivable with recourse
Sale of Accounts Receivable with Recourse

Treat as a sale if all of these conditions are met (SFAS 140):

  • Receivables are isolated from transferor.
  • Transferee has right to pledge or exchange receivables.
  • Transferor does not have effective control over the receivables.
    • Transferor cannot repurchase receivable before maturity.
    • Transferor cannot require returnof specific receivables.
sale of accounts receivable with recourse contd
Sale of Accounts Receivable with Recourse (contd.)

With recourse

  • Must meet the three conditions of determining surrender of control to be recognized as a sale.
  • If the transaction fails to meet the three conditions necessary to be classified asa sale, it will be treated as asecured borrowing.
accelerating cash collections sale of receivable factoring with recourse
Accelerating cash collections:Sale of receivable (factoring) with recourse
  • Hervey Corp. sells $80,000 of its customer receivables to Leslie Financing (the factor) for $71,800. Leslie’s fee is reduced to 4% with a recourse transaction. Suppose Leslie also withholds 5,000 to cover possible non-collections. The entry to record the sale of receivables with recourse is:

DR Cash $71,800

DRloss 3,200

DR Due from Leslie Financing 5,000

CR Accounts receivable 80,000

accelerating cash collections sale of receivable factoring with recourse1
Accelerating cash collections:Sale of receivable (factoring) with recourse
  • If only $3,750 of receivables are uncollectible by Leslie, Hervey’s final entry is:

DR Cash 1,250

DR Allowance for uncollectibles 3,750

CR Due from Leslie Financing 5,000

accelerating cash collections is it a sale or a borrowing
Accelerating cash collections:Is it a sale or a borrowing?
  • The FASB has provided guidelines in the Accounting Standards Codification
  • However, ambiguities abound.

Sale of receivables:

  • Receivables removed from balance sheet
  • Gain or loss recognized in income

Is control




Borrowing against


  • Assets are beyond reach
  • Buyer has right to dispose
  • Seller has no obligation to repurchase



  • Receivables stay on balance sheet
  • Loan shown as balance sheet liability.
  • No gain or loss recognized in income


reasons to finance with accounts receivable
Reasons to Finance with Accounts Receivable

Securitizations are popular for two reasons:

Investors have a strong appetite for acquiring collateralized securities.

Firms with large amounts of receivables have incentives to engage in securitizations. e incentives to engage in securitizations

  • A sale of securities (i.e., bonds or commercial paper) backed (collateralized ) by a pool of receivables or loans.
  • These receivables or loans can be mortgage receivables (i.e., mortgage-backed securities), consumer debts (i.e., assets-backed securities), and corporate bonds (i.e., collateralized debt obligations).
securitization contd
Securitization (contd.)
  • When a company uses its receivables (i.e., auto loan receivables) as collaterals to issue bonds (i.e., asset-backed securities), the receivables will remain on its balance sheet and its liability will be increased from the increase of the bonds payable.
  • As a result, this transaction will have an adverse effect on its return on assets and debt/equity ratios.
securitization and off balance sheet financing
Securitization and Off Balance Sheet Financing
  • A special purpose entity (SPE) is created by a third party which is independent of the company (referred to as the transferor) with receivables.
  • The SPE serves the purpose of buying receivables from the transferor and issuing securities (i.e., commercial papers) collateralized on the receivables transferred from the transferor.
  • The SPE is legally distinct from the transferor and can be in the form of a trust, partnership or corporation.
procedures of securitization
Procedures of Securitization
  • The transferor will first transfer its receivables to the SPE.
  • The SPE issues securities using these receivables as collaterals.
  • The cash received by the SPE from issuing securities will go back to the transferor to pay off the receivables transferred.
procedures of securitization contd
Procedures of Securitization (contd.)
  • The SPE is served as a “pass through”.
  • The transferor can continue to service the loan for a fee.
qualifying spe
Qualifying SPE
  • If the SPE is a qualified SPE (i.e., with at least 10% of capital invested by the third party who created the SPE), the transferor does not have to consolidate the balance sheet of the SPE.
  • As a result, both the receivables and the liabilities from issuing securities will appear only on the balance sheet of the SPE, not the transferor.
pre codification sfas 166 and sfas 167
Pre-Codification SFAS 166 and SFAS 167
  • The concept of qualifying SPE is eliminated by pre-codification SFAS No.166 issued in June 2009, and became effective as of the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning after Nov. 2009 (i.e., January 2010).
  • SFAS 167 redefine variable interest entity and the assessment method in determining the primary beneficiary.
sfas 166 and sfas 167 contd
SFAS 166 and SFAS 167 (Contd.)
  • Thus, more SPEs are subject to consolidation by the sponsors or the transferors under these new rules.
  • Fannie Mae reported an increase of its assets from $869.1 billion to $3,246.2 billion, and its liabilities increased from $884.4 billion to $3,258.2 billion (source: RCJM textbook, p448) after the adoption of the new accounting rules at the beginning of 2010..
additional notes on securitization
Additional Notes on Securitization
  • In order to market the asset-backed bonds, It is common that the SPE is rated by bond rating agencies and the bonds issued by the SPE is guaranteed by an independent third party.
  • When the balance sheet of the SPE is not consolidated with the balance sheet of the sponsor, the transferor benefits from obtaining financing without reporting the liabilities (i.e., bonds payable).
  • The transferor, therefore, has an off-balance sheet financing.
benefits of spe
Benefits of SPE
  • To protect the investors of asset-backed securities issued by a SPE:
    • Even the transferor were to declare bankruptcy, the collaterals underlying the asset-backed securities are safe from seizure by the creditors of the transferor.
benefits of spe contd
Benefits of SPE (contd.)

2. The transferor can receive favorable financial reporting for the transaction.

  • Without the SPE, the transferor would issue the debt securities directly to investors.
  • This would constitute a collateralized borrowing, and therefore, receivables and liabilities would both be reported on the balance sheet of the transferor.
benefits of spe contd1
Benefits of SPE (contd.)
  • With SPE, the reduction in credit risk decreases the cost of capital of the transferor’s.
  • When SPE receives a better bond rating (i.e., AAA) from a bond rating agency than its sponsor (i.e., BBB), the securities issued by the SPE will have a lower effective interest rate than the securities issued by the transferor.
a closer look at securitizations
A Closer look at Securitizations
  • Prior to November 15, 2009, most structures were designed to meet the definition of a qualifying special purpose entity (QSPE).


a closer look at securitizations1
A Closer look at Securitizations:

Notice: No debt appears on Doyle’s books!


accelerating cash collections impact on doyle s financial ratios
Accelerating cash collections:Impact on Doyle’s financial ratios
  • Securitization removes
  • the mortgage assets from
  • the B/S and does not put a loan payable on the B/S.

30% Increase

27% reduction

  • Effect on Accounts receivable turnover :
  • The measure for the average duration of an account receivable.
  • A/R turnover= Credit sales/ Account receivable.
  • The ratio will show there is an improvement, but it cannot be sustained indefinitely.
securitization and the 2008 financial crisis souce rcjm textbook
Securitization and the 2008 Financial Crisis (souce: RCJM textbook)
  • Subprime lending increased substantially from 2004 to 2007 due to:
  • Originators had incentives to make as many loans as possible since they can sell the loans (either to other financial institution such as Fannie Mae or SPE). Therefore, they do not care about the credit risk associated with the lending. Many of the mortgage applications contained frauds (Fitch Ratings).
  • The originators and rating agencies underestimated the risks associated with their guarantees and securitizers shopped for high ratings.
  • .
securitization and the 2008 financial crisis souce rcjm textbook1
Securitization and the 2008 Financial Crisis (souce: RCJM textbook)
  • When the borrower began to default, some of the complex legal issues and structures related to the securitization prevented the SPE to modify loans for borrowers.
  • As the defaults began, it was clear that the originators and guarantors had more loss exposure than was disclosed in their financial statements.
  • The investors over-relied on the ratings for investment decisions.
accelerating cash collections cautions for financial statement readers
Accelerating cash collections:Cautions for financial statement readers
  • Even the cash flow statement may not reveal that receivables were sold without recourse.
  • When firms sell receivables, the balance sheet will understate the true growth in receivables during the period (because some have been sold.
  • Subprime loans and securitizations were at the heart of the 2008 economic crisis. Accounting and regulatory reforms are underway to address some of the problems identified during the crisis.
  • GAAP requires that accounts receivable be shown at their netrealizable value .
  • Two methods are used to estimate uncollectibles: (1) the percentage of sales approach, and (2) the percentage of account receivable approach.
  • Analysts should scrutinize the allowance for uncollectibles account balance over time.
  • Receivable growth can exceed sales growth for several reasons, including when aggressive revenue recognition practices are being used.
summary continued
Summary continued
  • It is sometimes necessary to “impute” the effective interest rate on a note receivable.
  • Firms may elect the fair value option for accounts and notes payable. Changes in fair value are recognized in net income.
  • To accelerate cash collections, firms sometimes transfer or dispose of their receivables. These transactions take the form of factoring (a sale) or collateralized borrowing(a loan).


summary continued1
Summary continued
  • ASC Topic 860 Transfers and Servicing of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification provides guidance for distinguishing between the sale (control is surrendered) and borrowing (control is not surrendered).
  • When the transfer is with recourse, SFAS No. 5 requires footnote disclosure of the contingent liability.
  • But there is no similar unequivocal disclosure requirement when receivables are sold without recourse.


summary concluded
Summary concluded
  • Lenders often restructure loans when the customer is unable to make required payments. These troubled debt restructurings involve (a) settlement, or (b) continuation with modification of debt terms.
  • Both the FASB and the IASB have projects on financial instruments and derecognition.