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NUTRITIONAL STANDARDS NFSC 100. DRI Food Labels Dietary Guidelines My Pyramid. Nutrition Standards: A diet should be balanced and adequate. For more than 50 years, the RDA, Recommended Dietary Allowances, was the nutritional standard Focus:

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Nutritional standards nfsc 100



Food Labels

Dietary Guidelines

My Pyramid

Nutrition standards a diet should be balanced and adequate
Nutrition Standards:A diet should be balanced and adequate

  • For more than 50 years, the RDA, Recommended Dietary Allowances, was the nutritional standard

    • Focus:

  • Now is being replaced by the DRIs, Dietary Reference Intakes.

Difference between old rda and new dri
Difference Between Old RDA and New DRI:

  • DRIs use more than one set of values,

  • Focus on ________________________, not just preventing deficiency, and

  • Recognize a need, in this age of supplementation, for a _______________


Dri dietary reference intakes 4 values
DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes4 values:

  • EAR Estimated Average Requirement

    • (population averages – used for research and public policy setting)

  • RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances

    • safe and adequate intakes for most healthy people

  • AI : Adequate intakes

    • (nutrient goals for individuals – set when there’s not enough scientific evidence to set an RDA), and

  • UL: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

A note about the rda dri
A Note about the RDA/DRI

  • Margin for safety -- not a minimum requirement

  • Meant to be met with food (big rocks)



Food Labels

Dietary Guidelines

My Pyramid

Food labels
Food Labels

  • Ingredients List

    • descending order by weight

  • Beverages w/juice must declare %juice

  • Weight:

    1 oz. = 28.4g

    (or about 30g)

    130 mg

    Dv daily value
    %DV = % Daily Value

    • Based on a 2000 kcal diet and the following reference values:

      • Total fat: less than 65g

      • Sat’d fat: less than 20g

      • Cholesterol: less than 300mg

      • Sodium: less than 2400mg

      • Total CHO: 300g

      • Protein: 25g

    Food Label

    Legal terms for food labels
    Legal Terms for Food Labels

    • Low fat: 3 g fat per serving.

    • Low saturated fat: 1 g sat’d fat per serving.

    • Low cholesterol: 20 mg cholesterol per serving.

    • Low sodium:  140 mg per serving.

    • High fiber: 5 g or more fiber per serving

    • Good source: One serving provides at least 10% DV for a particular nutrient.

    • High in/Excellent Source: 20%+ DV for a particular nutrient

    • Reduced/Less: 25% less fat or fewer kcals than the regular (reference) food.

    Calculating kcals from macronutrients
    Calculating % Kcals From Macronutrients

    • 1. Convert grams to kcals.

      • Prot. kcals + CHO kcals + fat kcals = TOTAL KCALS

    … always label your units!

    Example 2 calculate 1 total kcals 2 kcals from each macronutrient
    Example 2: and sugarCalculate 1. Total kcals 2. % kcals from each macronutrient

    • Total fat: 3g

      • Saturated fat: 1g

    • Total Carbohydrate: 32g

    • Protein: 3g

    Supplement facts label
    “Supplement Facts” Label and sugar

    • Manufacturers are not required to provide evidence of safety/efficacy

    • Burden of proof of safety and efficacy of a dietary supplement is on the FDA (Food and Drug Administration)

    Dietary supplement

    Vitamin and sugar


    Herb or botanical

    Amino acid




    Or any combination of the above

    Dietary Supplement

    Buyer beware market
    Buyer-beware Market and sugar

    • Health/nutrition claims can legally be made as long as this appears on the label:

      • “This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease”

    Progress? and sugar

    • Ten-year plan (HP2010) to develop a science-based regulatory program for dietary supplements.

    • Legally, marketers of supplements “must have above board scientific evidence to support any health claims.”

    • FDA still has the burden of proof.

    • The industry is still largely unregulated.

    Issue of doping
    Issue of “doping” and sugar

    • IOC, NCAA, and other organizations have strict doping regulations

    • Essential nutrients are legal

    • Several supplements are prohibited

      This will be covered in our “ergogenic aids” lecture, but is briefly discussed in h. 1 of your text.

    • Note that several banned substances are available in over-the-counter-supplements, and may not be declared on the label. Athletes are subject to disqualification from an event if doping is detected.

    Fda list of potentially hazardous supplements be able to recognize these as potentially hazardous
    FDA List of Potentially Hazardous Supplements: and sugar(Be able to recognize these as potentially hazardous)

    • Chaparral – traditional American Indian medicine

      • Liver disease, possibly irreversible

    • Comfrey

      • Obstruction of blood flow to liver, possibly leading to death

    • Slimming, Dieter’s Tea

      • N/D/V/stomach cramps, chronic constipation, fainting, possible death

    Banned 12/31/03 and sugar

    • Ephedra, ephedrine, ma huang, Chinese ephedra, epitonin

      • High bp, irregular heartbeat, nerve damage, injury, insomnia, tremors, headaches to seizures, heart attack, stroke, death

    • Germander

      • Liver disease, possibly leading to death

    • Lobelia (Indian Tobacco)

      • Breathing problems at low doses to sweating/rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, possible coma/death at higher dosages

    • Magnolia Stephania and sugar

      • Kidney disease, possibly leading to kidney failure and death

    • Willowbark – marketed as an aspirin free product, although it contains an ingredient which converts to the same active ingredient in aspirin

      • Rye syndrome (potentially fatal disease associated w/children who take aspirin while having chicken pox or flu symptoms), allergic reactions in adults

    • Wormwood

      • Neurological symptoms: numbness in legs and arms, loss of intellect, delirium, paralysis, and death.

    • For more info: and sugar

    • Science-based book on Herbs:

      “The Honest Herbal,” by Varro Tyler, Ph.D., Sc.D.,