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Cardiovascular System. Components of the Cardiovascular System Generating & Measuring heart impulses. Cardiovascular System. Components of the Cardiovascular System Generating & Measuring heart impulses. Cardiovascular System. Myths and Facts. Myths and Facts. Emotions. Myths and Facts.

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Cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular System

Components of the Cardiovascular System

Generating & Measuring heart impulses

Cardiovascular system1

Cardiovascular System

Components of the Cardiovascular System

Generating & Measuring heart impulses

Myths and facts1
Myths and Facts


Myths and facts2
Myths and Facts



Function of the system
Function of the system

  • With its massive infrastructure within our body, the

  • cardiovascular system is our very own transportation system.

  • As such, it has four (4) main functions:

  • To transportoxygen and carbon dioxide around the body

  • To distributenutrients and transport waste

  • To maintainbodytemperature

  • To circulatehormones

Types of circulatory system
Types of Circulatory System

“Closed” system

“Open” system

Our circulatory system is a “closed” system

Variation of closed system
Variation of Closed system

Our circulatory system is a “complete, double” system

incomplete, double

complete, double

complete, single

De-oxygenated blood

Mixed blood

Oxygenated blood

Major components of the system
Major Components of the System


  • The circulatory system is made up of 3 components:

  • The heart (a pump) – that pushes blood through the vessels

  • Blood vessels

  • A fluid in which materials are transported (i.e. blood)


blood vessels


Major components of the system1
Major Components of the System


blood vessels


Organization of the system
Organization of the System

site of gas exchange

Two (2) main circuits:

a) The Pulmonary circuit – blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs where it picks up oxygen and then back to the heart.

b) The Systemic circuit – blood vessels

that carry oxygen rich blood to the

body tissues and deoxygenated

blood back to the heart.

A third minor circuit:

c) The Coronary circuit– blood vessels

surround the heart to provide it

with oxygen



site of gas exchange

The heart
The Heart

1. The heart is really a double pump separated in

the middle by a wall called a septum.

  • The heart consists of 4 chambers.

  • two (2) top chambers = atriums,

  • two (2) bottom = ventricles.

  • The left side of the heart receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs & pumps it to the body.

  • The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood back from the body and pumps it to the lungs to pick up more oxygen.

neck and head

Vena cava

left lung

right lung

Vena cava


trunk and legs

The blood vessels
The Blood Vessels



blood exchange in the capillaries




Blood from heart blood going to heart



The blood vessels1
The Blood Vessels

  • Arteries: blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

  •  thick walls of muscular layers

  •  largest is the aorta that carry oxygenated blood to the body

  • Veins: blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart.

  •  veins have thinner walls than arteries and contain valves to prevent

  • back flow of blood (i.e. so blood can be pumped against gravity).

  •  major veins are the vena cavasthat carry deoxygenated blood to

  • the right side of the heart.

  • Capillaries: very small blood vessels, red blood cells must travel single-file,

  • gases exchange across the walls of capillaries and into the

  • surrounding tissues.

When tending wound, apply ice or cold solution to constrict blood flow!

The blood components
The Blood Components

  • The average adult has about 5L of blood.

  • Blood is 55% liquid, called plasma and 45% cells (red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets)

What is in the heart
What is in the Heart?

superior vena cava


left pulmonary vein

right pulmonary vein

left pulmonary artery

right pulmonary artery

right atrium

left atrium

Coronary circuit

right ventricle

left ventricle

inferior vena cava

More heart parts
More heart parts

Sinoatrial (S.A.) Node:

 the pace maker of the heart.

 beats are regulated at about 72 beats/min.

 its activityistriggeredby the swelling of

the atrial walls.

 once activated, it triggers the A.V. node.

Atriaventricle (A.V.) Node:

isanother pace maker

it prepares the fibres in the septum to

contract the Right and Left Ventricles.

Valves: there are two (2) types of valves

Atrioventricular valves:

 located between the atria and ventricles.

 has three or two flaps

 these valves open when the atria contract,

 once the ventricles have filled, the AV valves

snap shut to prevents the backflow of blood

to the atria.

2. Semi-lunar valves:

 has three (2) flaps

 these open when the ventricles contract.

 on the right, blood is pumped to the

pulmonary artery, and simultaneously on the

left, blood is pumped into the aorta)

 once completed, these valves snap shut to

prevents the backflow of blood into the


Measuring the heart electrical impulses
Measuring the Heart Electrical Impulses


Time (s)

  • ECG shows three (3) recognizable waves:

  • P wave – small wave immediately before atria contraction

  • QRS complex – complicated wave before ventricle contraction

  • T wave – when the ventricle relaxes and preparing for the next contraction event

More facts oh no
More Facts …. (oh no!)

“Lubb-dubb”: Heart sound ‘lubbdubb’ is the shutting of the two sets of valves respectively.

Blood pressure: your pulse (feel as a surge of blood passes through your arteries.)


  • Two (2) types of blood pressure:

  • Systolic pressure: when blood is pumped out of the left ventricle

  • Diastolic pressure: the pressure in the artery walls in a relaxation state

  • Q. What is happening in the heart during Diastolic Pressure?

  • The atria + ventricles are filling with blood.

Measuring blood pressure
Measuring Blood Pressure


  • Blood pressure is measured in mm of Hg,

  • Blood pressure is written as:

  • systolic pressure

  • diastolic pressure

  • Normal blood pressure is 120/80.