The United Nations. ‘a collective security organisation’. Membership of the UN. There are 191 member states http://www.un.org/members/index.html Growth in UN Membership: 51 original states, 159 by 1990 and 191 by 2003, (UN:webpage, growth in membership ). There are 191 member states
The United Nations ‘a collective security organisation’
Membership of the UN • There are 191 member states • http://www.un.org/members/index.html • Growth in UN Membership: 51 original states, 159 by 1990 and 191 by 2003, (UN:webpage, growth in membership) • There are 191 member states • http://www.un.org/members/index.html • Growth in UN Membership: 51 original states, 159 by 1990 and 191 by 2003, (UN:webpage, growth in membership) • There are 191 member states • http://www.un.org/members/index.html • Growth in UN Membership: 51 original states, 159 by 1990 and 191 by 2003, (UN:webpage, growth in membership)
The UN Charter: PREAMBLE WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, AND FOR THESE ENDS to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
Background: why was it set up? • The League of Nations, 1919; though it failed ( US was not a member) • Yet the idea of ‘a global security organisation’ survived • A clearer division of responsibilities between the Security Council and The General Assembly; the Security Council (15 members) has firm responsibility for maintaining international peace and security
The UN system ‘ the UN system [is] multicentred and constantly concerned with the problems of co-ordination, as it was made up of a large number of constitutionally distinct institutions which had a strong urge to go their separate ways’
The structure of the UN • The central system • Security council, 15 members • Economic and Social Council of 54 members • The General Assembly of representatives of member states • The Secretariat of the UN under the Secretary General • The funds and Programmes • UN Development Programme • UN Children’s Emergency Fund • UN Conference on Trade and Development • World Food Programme • The specialized agencies: • WHO; UNESCO; UNIDO; ILO • FAO
‘The Security Council’ • 15 members • 5 permanent members ( China, Russia, US, UK, France) • Other 10 members – chosen by a political arrangement that tries to ensure that both big and small countries are selected and that countries from different parts of the world have a more or less equal chance of serving • The voting system • To authorize use of military force, 9 out of 15 must approve • Special voting rule for the permanent members – here unanimous voting applies; so, any one of the 5 can veto the proposal
‘The Security Council’ • If the UN wants to use military force, it is the security Council that must authorize it - the only UN body that can make decisions that are binding on all UN members
Under the Charter, functions, powers of the Security Council: to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations; • to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction; • to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement; • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments; • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken; • to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression; • to take military action against an aggressor; • to recommend the admission of new Members; • to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas"; • to recommend to the GeneralAssembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.