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Linking long-term patterns of landscape heterogeneity to changing ecosystem processes in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Sandra MacFadyen 1 1 PhD student and GeoSpatial Analyst, South African National Parks (sandra.macfadyen@sanparks.org)

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slide1

Linking long-term patterns of landscape heterogeneity to changing ecosystem processes in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

Sandra MacFadyen11 PhD student and GeoSpatial Analyst, South African National Parks (sandra.macfadyen@sanparks.org)

Hui C 2 and Verburg P 3 2 Supervisor, Stellenbosch University, Department of Botany & Zoology (chui@sun.ac.za)3 Co-supervisor, Vrije University, Amsterdam, Environmental Studies (peter.verburg@ivm.vu.nl)

research unpacked
Research Unpacked
  • Linking long-term patterns of landscape heterogeneity to changing ecosystem processes in the Kruger National Park, South Africa
landscape heterogeneity
Landscape Heterogeneity
  • Landscape heterogeneity is the cause and consequence of interactions between spatial patterns and ecological processes (Turner et al 2001).
slide4

< >

< >

1composition (type)

+ 2function (process)

= 3structure (pattern)

@ different scales

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MacFadyen 2010

functional importance
Functional Importance
  • Spatial heterogeneity at a variety of scales is functionally important (Pickett et al 1999)
  • Without an adequate understanding of natural pattern and process, protected area managers are flying blind (Olson 2010)
pattern process pattern
….Pattern = Process = Pattern….
  • Spatial pattern affect ecological processes, which in response affects spatial patterns.
  • Natural spatial patterns should guide management decisions not unnatural administrative boundaries (Leitão et al 2006)

Use pattern to decipher process

Bailey 2009

research objectives
Research Objectives
  • ID patterns of heterogeneity at different scales.
  • ID processes responsible for these patterns.
  • Investigate dynamics of pattern and process.
  • Management implications.
slide8

OBJECTIVE 2

ID processes <=> Patterns

OBJECTIVE 1

ID landscape heterogeneity patterns ∆ scales

OBJECTIVE 3

Dynamics of Pattern & process

OBJECTIVE 4

Management Implications

1972

2010

chapter 1

CHAPTER 1

Chapter 1

Landscape Metrics

Band Combination

spectral variance

Ancillary Data

topography

geology

rainfall

Image Classification

Spectral Heterogeneity

Inter-calibrated

MSS

TM

ETM+

object

spectral

entropy

what constitutes a landscape1
What constitutes a Landscape

Landform (geology + topographic elements)

+> climate

<=> ecological processes

<=> vegetation and animal response

<=+> disturbance

Wiens (1999)

landscape schematic
Landscape Schematic

HABITAT

SOIL

MOVEMENT OF WATER

elevation

regime

slope

+

CLIMATE

local weather

LANDFORM

aspect

microclimate

geology

HABITAT

slide16

FLORA

FAUNA

HABITAT

HABITAT

SOIL

MOVEMENT OF WATER

elevation

regime

slope

+

CLIMATE

local weather

LANDFORM

aspect

microclimate

geology

HABITAT

HABITAT

slide17

DISTURBANCES

FLORA

FAUNA

HABITAT

HABITAT

HABITAT

SOIL

MOVEMENT OF WATER

elevation

regime

slope

+

CLIMATE

local weather

LANDFORM

aspect

microclimate

geology

HABITAT

HABITAT

slide18

CHAPTER 1

  • Topography
  • Geology
  • Soil
  • Rainfall
  • Temperature
  • Flora
  • Fauna
slide19

LANDSAT ETM+

10 May 2000

False-color composite

slide20

LANDSAT ETM+

10 May 2000

False-color composite

slide21

LANDSAT ETM+

10 May 2000

False-color composite

slide22

LANDSAT ETM+

10 May 2000

True-color composite

slide23

LANDSAT ETM+

10 May 2000

Panchromatic

limitations of data

CHAPTER 1

Limitations of Data
  • Scale: Extent and Resolution
  • Horizontal and Vertical structure
difference of scale

CHAPTER 1

Difference of Scale

Elephant

Elephant Shrew

VS.

chapter 2

CHAPTER 2

Chapter 2

Landscape Metrics

Drivers and/or Responders

Ecological Processes

animal movement

population distribution

fire frequency

rainfall

Spectral Heterogeneity

exclusion experiments

CHAPTER 2

Exclusion Experiments

Inside vs. Outside: What is different/missing?

chapter 3

CHAPTER 3

Chapter 3

1972

Landscape Metrics

diversify

Spectral Heterogeneity

Kruger National Park Landscapes

homogenize

2010

greatest change

slide35

LANDSAT ETM+

False-color composite

2000

slide36

LANDSAT TM

False-color composite

1984

chapter 4

CHAPTER 4

Chapter 4

?

areas which have diversified over 38yrs

?

Kruger National Park Landscapes

areas which have homogenized over 38yrs

?

areas which have under gone

greatest change over 38yrs

application of results

CHAPTER 4

Application of Results
  • Philosophically
  • Theoretically
  • Practically
  •  KNP management plan
thank you
Thank you

Questions?

notes to myself
Notes to myself
  • Be clear about what elements of landscape heterogeneity are being measured
  • What metrics and why. How will I decide what indices prove useful and how will I know if a changed index is important to ecosystem functioning.
  • Develop causal diagram to explain how factors interact, how will I investigate relationships and what data to use
  • Be clear about auto-correlation and spatial variability (e.g. within satellite image)
  • Be more specific about scale (explain extent vs. grain)
  • Stress natural systems when talking about ecological importance of heterogeneity (e.g. fragmentation=bad)
  • Be clear about what aspects of function will be addressed
  • NB to explain and defend image classification technique and add sensitivity tests
  • Can I test the validity of the statement, “ greater landscape heterogeneity provides increased ecosystem resilience and higher species richness”?
  • Add general explanation of landscape trend analysis
  • NB to explain why each time I describe how i.e why a certain technique/statistic