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Peripheral of Modern Desktop Board & its Linux programming

Peripheral of Modern Desktop Board & its Linux programming

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Peripheral of Modern Desktop Board & its Linux programming

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  1. Peripheral of Modern Desktop Board & its Linux programming Dr A Sahu Dept of Comp Sc & Engg. IIT Guwahati

  2. Outline • Intel 945 Motherboard architecture • GMCH • ICH7 (8254,8259,8237) • Interrupt & io-apic • IDT, GDT • Multiprocessor io-apic • IDT table printing in linux kernel module

  3. Intel 945 Express Chipset Intel Pentium D Processor Support for Media Ext Card DDR2 82945 GMCH/MCH North Bridge Intel GMA 950 Graphics DDR2 PCI Express* x16 Graphics 4 Serial ATA Ports Intel HD Audio 82801 GR ICH7 (io cont. hub sys7) South Bridge Integrated Matrix Storage Technology 8 high Speed USB Ports 6 PCI Express* x1 slot 6 PCI Slots Intel Pro 100/1000 LAN Intel Active Mngement Tech. BIOS Support

  4. 82945 : GMCH/MCH • Graphics and Memory Controller Hub • Graphics Interface (GI) and PCI Express for Graphics card support • Host Interface (HI) • Connect to processor and support HT, IntrDelivery, 12 in-order queue, etc. • System Memory Interface (SMI) • Connected to two channel DDR2 • Direct Media Interface (DMI) • Connect to ICH7

  5. 82801: ICH7 • IO Controller HUB version 7 (South Bridge) • Enhance DMA controller, IC and timer • Two cascaded 8259 PIC • One 82C54 PIT (Motorola) • One 8237 DMA • Low Pin count (LPC) Interface • PCI and PCI express (Peripheral Component. Int) • AC97 & HD Audio Codec • Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) Support • Firm wire support (BIOS) • ACPI, SATA, USBs

  6. Exceptions and Interrupts: Rationale • Usefulness of a general-purpose computer is dependent on its ability to interact with various peripheral devices attached to it (e.g., keyboard, display, disk-drives, etc.) • Devices require a prompt response from the cpu when various events occur, even when the cpu is busy running a program • The x86 interrupt-mechanism provides this

  7. Simplified Block Diagram Central Processing Unit Main Memory system bus I/O device I/O device I/O device I/O device

  8. The ‘fetch-execute’ cycle Normal programming assumes this ‘cycle’: • 1) Fetch the next instruction from ram • 2) Interpret the instruction just fetched • 3) Execute this instruction as decoded • 4) Advance the cpu instruction-pointer • 5) Go back to step 1

  9. But ‘departures’ may occur • Circumstances may arise under which it would not be appropriate for the CPU to just proceed with this fetch-execute cycle • Examples: • An ‘external device’ might ask for service • An interpreted instruction could be ‘illegal’ • An instruction ‘trap’ may have been set

  10. Faults • If the cpu detects that an instruction it has just decoded would be illegal to execute, it cannot proceed with the fetch-execute cycle • This type of situation is known as a ‘fault’ • It is detected BEFORE incrementing the IP • The cpu will react by: 1) saving some info on its stack, then 2) switching control to a special fault-handling routine

  11. Fault-Handling • The causes of ‘faults’ often can be ‘fixed’ • A few examples: • 1) Writing to a ‘read-only’ segment • 2) Reading from a ‘not present’ segment • 3) Executing an out-of-bounds instruction • 4) Executing a ‘privileged’ instruction • If a ‘problem’ can be remedied, then the CPU can just resume its execution-cycle

  12. Traps • A CPU might have been programmed to automatically switch control to a ‘debugger’ program after it has executed an instruction • That type of situation is known as a ‘trap’ • It is activated AFTER incrementing the IP • It is accomplished by setting the TF flag • Just as with faults, the cpu will react: save return-info, + jump to trap-handler

  13. Faults versus Traps Both ‘faults’ and ‘traps’ occur at points within a computer program which are ‘predictable’ (i.e., triggered by pre-planned instructions), so they are ‘in sync’ with the program (and thus are called ‘synchronous’ interruptions in the normal fetch-execute cycle) The cpu responds in a similar way to faults and to traps – yet what gets saved differs!

  14. Faults vs Traps (continued) • With a ‘fault’: the saved address is for the instruction which triggered the fault – so it will be that instruction which gets re-fetched after the cause of the problem has been corrected • With a ‘trap’: the saved address is for the instruction following the one which triggered the trap

  15. Stack’s layout SS ESP EFLAGS CS EIP SS:ESP In case the CPU gets interrupted while it is executing a user application, then the CPU will switch to a new ‘kernel-mode’ stack before saving its current register-values for EFLAGS, CS, and EIP, and in fact will begin by saving on the kernel-mode stack the register-values for SS and ESP which point to the top of user-mode stack (so it can be restored later on)

  16. Interrupt Handling • As with faults and traps, the cpu responds to ‘interrupt’ requests by saving some info on its kernel stack, and then jumping to a special ‘interrupt-handler’ routine designed to take appropriate action for the particular device which caused the interrupt to occur • The ‘entry-point’ to the interrupt-handler is located via the Interrupt Descriptor Table

  17. The ‘Interrupt Controller’ • Special hardware is responsible for telling the CPU when a specific external device wishes to ‘interrupt’ the current program • This hardware is the ‘Interrupt Controller’ • It needs to tell the cpu which one among several devices is the one needing service • It also needs to prioritize multiple requests

  18. Two Interrupt-Controllers Legacy PC Design (for single-processor systems) and during the Power-On Self-Test during the system-restart initialization x86 CPU Real-Time Clock Master PIC (8259) Slave PIC (8259) INTR Keyboard controller Programmable Interval-Timer

  19. Three crucial data-structures • The Global Descriptor Table (GDT) defines the system’s memory-segments and their access-privileges, which the CPU has the duty to enforce • The Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT) defines entry-points for the various code-routines that will handle all ‘interrupts’ and ‘exceptions’ • The Task-State Segment (TSS) holds the values for registers SS and ESP that will get loaded by the CPU upon entering kernel-mode

  20. How does CPU find GDT/IDT? • Two dedicated registers: GDTR and IDTR • Both have identical 48-bit formats: Segment Base Address Segment Limit 47 16 15 0 Kernel must setup these registers during system startup (set-and-forget) Privileged instructions: LGDT and LIDT used to set these register-values Unprivileged instructions: SGDT and SIDT used for reading register-values

  21. How does CPU find the TSS? • Dedicated system segment-register TR holds a descriptor’s offset into the GDT The kernel must set up the GDT and TSS structures and must load the GDTR and the TR registers GDT TSS TR The CPU knows the layout of fields in the Task-State Segment GDTR

  22. Segment-Descriptor Format 56 39 63 32 Base[31…24] Limit [19..16] Access attributes Base[23…16] Base[ 15 … 0 ] Limit[ 15 ... 0 ] 31 16 15 0 Quadword (64-bits)

  23. Gate-Descriptor Format 63 32 Entrypoint Offset[ 31…16 ] Gate type code (Reserved) Code-segment Selector Entrypoint Offset[ 15…0 ] 0 31 Quadword (64-bits)

  24. Intel-Reserved ID-Numbers • Of the 256 possible interrupt ID-numbers, Intel reserves the first 32 for ‘exceptions’ • Operating systems such as Linux are free to use the remaing 224 available interrupt ID-numbers for their own purposes (e.g., for service-requests from external devices, or for other purposes such as system-calls

  25. Some Intel-defined exceptions • 0: divide-overflow fault • 1: debug traps and faults • 2: non-maskable interrupts • 3: debug breakpoint trap • 4: INTO detected overflow • 5: BOUND range exceeded • 6: Undefined Opcode • 7: Coprocessor Not Available • 8: Double-Fault • 9: (reserved) • 10: Invalid Task-State Segment • 11: Segment-Not-Present fault • 12: Stack fault • 13: General Protection Exception • 14: Page-Fault Exception • 15: (reserved)

  26. Using ‘dram.c’ driver We can look at the kernel’s GDT/IDT tables • We can find them (using ‘sgdt’ and ‘sidt’) • We can ‘read’ them by using ‘/dev/dram’ A demo-program on our course website: showidt.cpp It prints out the 256 IDT Gate-Descriptors

  27. ROM-BIOS • For industry compatibility, Intel created its “Multiprocessor Specification (version 1.4)” • It describes ‘standards’ for PC platforms that are intended to support multiple CPUs • Requirements include two data-structures that must reside in designated locations in the system’s read-only memory (ROM) at physical addresses vendors may choose

  28. MP Floating Pointer • The ‘MP Floating Pointer structure’ is 16 bytes in length, must begin at an address which is divisible by 16, and must start with this recognizable ‘signature’ string: “_MP_” • A program finds the structure by searching the ROM-BIOS area (0xF0000-0xFFFFF) for this special 4-byte string

  29. Multiple Logical Processors Multi-CORE CPU CPU 0 CPU 1 I/O APIC LOCAL APIC LOCAL APIC Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller is needed to perform ‘routing’ of I/O requests from peripherals to CPUs (The legacy PICs are masked when the APICs are enabled)

  30. MP Configuration Table • Immediately after the “_MP_” signature, the MP Floating Pointer structure stores the 32-bit physical-address of a larger variable-length data-structure known as the MP Configuration Table • This table contains entries which describe the system’s processors, buses, and other hardware components, including I/O APIC

  31. See: ‘smpinfo.c’ module • You can view the MP Floating Pointer and MP Configuration Table data-structures in ROM-BIOS memory (in hexadecimal format) by installing this LKM and then using the ‘cat’ command: $ cat /proc/smpinfo • Entries of type ‘2’ tell where the I/O APICs are mapped into CPU’s physical memory

  32. Two-dozen IRQs • The I/O APIC in our classroom machines supports 24 Interrupt-Request input-lines • Its 24 programmable registers determine how interrupt-signals get routed to CPUs Redirection-table

  33. Redirection Table Entry 63 56 55 48 32 destination extended destination reserved 31 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 0 reserved M A S K E / L R I R R H / L S T A T U S L / P delivery mode interrupt vector 000 = Fixed 001 = Lowest Priority 010 = SMI 011 = (reserved) 100 = NMI 101 = INIT 110 = (reserved) 111 = ExtINT Trigger-Mode (1=Edge-triggered, 0=Level-triggered) Remote IRR (for Level-Triggered only) 0 = Reset when EOI received from Local-APIC 1 = Set when Local-APICs accept Level-Interrupt sent by IO-APIC Interrupt Input-pin Polarity (1=Active-High, 0=Active-Low) Destination-Mode (1=Logical, 0=Physical) Delivery-Status (1=Pending, 0=Idle)

  34. Our ‘ioapic.c’ kernel-module • This Linux module creates a pseudo-file (named ‘/proc/ioapic’) which lets users view the current contents of the I/O APIC Redirection-Table registers • You can compile and install this module for our classroom and CS Lab machines

  35. How to find KBDs Interrupt • The keyboard’s interrupt is ‘routed’ by the I/O-APIC Redirection Table’s second entry (i.e., entry number 1) • Can you determine its interrupt ID-number on our Linux systems? • HINT: Use our ‘ioapic.c’ kernel-module

  36. Thanks